Socio-economic variables

How to Cite

Dayyabu, L.M, Ma’ule, U.M., & 3Dalhatu, A. (2021). INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC VARIABLES ON PADDY RICE (Oryza sativa) MARKETING IN SELECTTED MARKETS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences, 7(1), 252-265. Retrieved from


The study examined the socio- economic variables of the paddy rice marketers, market structure &margin
as well as constraints to paddy rice (Oryza sativa) marketing in selected markets in Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Six markets were purposively selected and a total of 124 marketers were randomly chosen. Primary data
were collected by the use of structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to
analyze the data. Results of socio-economic characteristics showed that majority of the respondents
(88.7%) were males and 53.2% were between the ages of 21- 40years, which indicates that the respondents
were within their active age. Majority (78%) of the paddy rice marketers had attained various level of
education in the study area. The results also revealed that 45.2% of the sampled Marketers have less than
6 people in their household and 66.9% of the paddy rice marketers financed their business from personal
savings, loan from banks constituted 11.3%. Colleagues or other marketers constituted 67.7% of the
sources of market information to paddy rice marketers in the study area. The result shows that paddy rice
marketers had a Gini coefficient of 0.64, implies that there is a significant inequality in the distribution of
income among the paddy rice marketers in the study area. Factors influencing marketing margin of paddy
rice in the study area include marital status at 1%, household size at 10%, years of experience and
educational level at 5% respectively. The result indicates that the model has an F-ratio (11.562) which
shows that the whole model was significant at 1 percent level of probability. The coefficient of determination
(R2) indicated that 45.5% variation in the dependent variable was explained by the explanatory variables
included in the model, while the remaining was as a result of variables not included in the model as well
as errors in estimation. The major constraints identified in the study area include inadequate capital, poor
road network and storage facility, seasonality of supply and lack of standard unit of measurement. Based
on the findings from the study, it was recommended that Government should provides credit facilities;
improved transportation network and marketers encouraged to form cooperatives so that they can pool
their resources together to increase their scale of operation.



Achike A. I and Anzaku T. A. K (2010) Economic Analysis of the Marketing Margin of Benniseed

in Nasarawa State, Nigeria Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Enviroment and

Extension, 9(1): 49 – 55

Adeoye, I., Usman., and Badmus, M. (2011). Economic Analysis of watermelon Based Production

System in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management,

(7), 53-59

Afolabi, J. A. (2009). An Assessment of Gari Marketing in South-Western Nigeria. Journal of

Social Sciences. 21(1): 33-38.

Agwu, N. M. and Ibeabuchi, J.O. (2011). Socio-Economic Analysis of Wholesale Rice Marketers

in Abia State, Nigeria. International journal of Social Sciences and Humanity, 1(4): 285 –

Amaza, P.S. and Olayemi,O. (2002). Analysis of Technical Efficiency in Crop Production in

Gombe State of Nigeria. Nigeria Applied Economics 9(13), 146- 152

Bassey, N. E., Okon, U. E. and Ibok, O. W., (2013):Intermarket Performance and Pricing

Efficiency of Imported Rice Marketing in South-South Nigeria: Agricultural Science

Volume 1, Issue 2 (2013), 53-63 ISSN 2291-4471 E-ISSN 2291-448X

Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme (2015) BSADP at a glance. A pamphlet

prepared by P.M.E Sub – programme.

Care (2004). Rice Marketing Survey Report. August, 2004. CARE International Timor.

Retrieved Oct. 2007 from www.jica.go.Jp/easttimor/english/topics/ pdf/report.pft

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (1999). Annual Report, Lagos, Nigeria.

Dia, Y. Z., Mshelia, S. I., Zalkuwi, J. and Gwandi, O. (2013).A Structural Analysis of Honey

Trade Flow into Ganye and Toungo Local Government Areas of Adamawa State,

Nigeria. Greener Journal of Business and Management Studies. 3(4):174-179.

Daiji World. (2020). Rice Production in Nigeria Now Competitive. Accessed

www.proshareng,com on 04/05/2021

Daniel R (2007). Donor intervention in value chain Development. Working paper SDC. Berne

publisher VCRD. Cop. P. 1-22f

Eronmwon, I., Alufohai, G., and Ada-Okungbow, C. (2014). Structure, Conduct and Performance

of Plantain Marketing in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental

Management, 8(3), 43 – 440.

Esiobu, N. S., Nwosu, C. S. and Onubuogu, G. C. (2014). Economics of Pineapple Marketing in

Owerri Municipal Council G Area, Imo Nigeria. Int. J. Appl. Res. Technol. 3(5): 3-12.

Ibitoye, S. J., (2012): Economic Analysis of Palm Oil Marketing in Dekina Local Government

Area of Kogi State, Nigeria.Asian Journal of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities.Vol.

, No.1, 2014.

Ishaya, P. (2014). Analysis of the Ginger, Maize and Soybeans Marketing in Kachia Local

Government Area Kaduna State, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis Submitted to The School of

Post Graduate Studies, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, In Partial Fulfillment of The

Requirements For The Award of The Degree of Masters of Science In Geography. Pp. 1-92.

Jabil, I. Y. (2009). Marketing of Selected Processed Diary Products in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

Unpublished thesis submitted to Agricultural Economics and Extension Programme,

ATBU, Bauchi, 144p

Mou, D. (2014) Potilitics Agricultural Marketing and Commodity Board in Nigeria. State Power,

Agrarian and Peasant Walefare. Author house Ltd, UK

National Bureau of Statistics NBS (2015).Demographic Statistics Bulletin 2nd Series. A

Publication of Demographic Statistics Division pp 1-15.

Nwele, J. O (2016). Economic of Rice Production and Marketing in Nigeria: A case Study of

Ebonyi State. International journal for Research in Business Management and

Accounting, 2(5): 17 – 37

Oladimeji Y. U.,Damisa M. A., Abdulsalam Z. and Omokore D.F.(2014). Determinants of poverty

among rural artisanal fishery households in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of sustainable

Development in Africa, 16(3):13-26.

Population. (2014). Nigeria – Population 2014. Accessed On


Uduji, J. I. and Mohammed, I. E. (2012). Strategic Marketing for Agricultural Produce in

Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 7(4): 45- 49.


Download data is not yet available.