Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences <p>Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to publishing and disseminating original research papers in Agricultural Economics, other fields of Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Social and Management Sciences. The journal also welcomes review articles and short communications. It is published on line twice a year.</p> Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria en-US Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Profitability Analysis of Rice Production in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>he study analyzed the Profitability of Rice Production in Hong Local government Area of<br>Adamawa State, Nigeria. A multi stage random sampling technique was used to sample 188 rice<br>farmers. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics for the socio-economic<br>characteristics while gross margin technique and net farm income were used to analyze the profit.<br>The result revealed that rice production is a viable venture as farmers earned a gross margin and<br>net farm income of N68,509.40/ha and N59,152.01/ha respectively. It was further revealed that<br>majority (70.74%) of the respondents were male, 69.68% were within the age of 31-50 years,<br>68.62% were married, majority (80%) of the farmers having a large household size, 76% of the<br>farmers have attained one form of education or the other and 76.6% of the respondents had farm<br>size ranging from 0.1-1.5ha. Also, the major constraints that farmers encountered were high cost<br>of labour, high cost of inputs, inadequate capital, land fragmentation and inadequate new<br>technology. The study recommends the need for government support in providing usefull<br>intimation that can facilitate farmers’ access to prevailing of price of rice, farmers to be given<br>proper orientation and/or basic trainings in major farm management techniques and with the<br>constraints confronting rice farmers and also there is need for both governmental and nongovernmental<br>organizations to grant soft loan to rice farmers to enable them addressed some of<br>the constraints.</p> Ahmed, U Ahmed, M.A. Salihu, A Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 9 1 1 13 Effects of Varying Levels of Lemon Grass Leaf Meal on Performance, Haematology and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broilers <p>A total of two hundred unsexed broiler chicks aged two weeks were used for six weeks feeding trial<br>to evaluate growth performance, hematology, and serum biochemistry. In this study, broilers<br>chicks were fed dietary lemon grass leaf meal at inclusion levels of T1control (0.00%), T2 (1.50%),<br>T3 (2.25%) and T4 (3.75 %). The weighed broilers were distributed at random among the four<br>treatment diets. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and each treatment was<br>replicated five times with ten broilers per replicate. Experimental birds were provided<br>experimental starter and finisher diets ad-libitum throughout the experimental period at weeks 2<br>to 4 and 5 to 7 respectively. The experiment revealed that weekly feed intake for week 2, 3, 4 and<br>6 was significantly affected (P&lt;0.05) except week five. The daily weight gain followed similar<br>pattern, however significant difference were observed only in week 3, 4 and 7 in all the treatment<br>groups. There were significant (P&lt;0.05) differences among the dietary groups in week 4, 6 and 7<br>in terms of feed conversion ratio. White blood cells value of birds fed on control diet 286.07x 109<br>/dl is similar to 283.37 and 268.67x 109 /dl for T3 and T4. Neutrophil values 14%, 19%,18% and<br>20% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) indicating that birds were<br>challenged with increasing levels of lemon grass leaf meal beyond 3.75%. The results of this study<br>indicate that birds fed with 1.5% of dietary lemon grass meal was the best among diets with lemon<br>grass and comparable with the control group in terms of daily weight gain. This implies that birds<br>fed with 1.5% level lemon grass leaf meal (LGLM) was able to utilize the experimental diet better<br>than other treatment groups and without detrimental effects.</p> Amaza, I. B Maidala, A Sudik, S. D Makinde, J. O Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 9 1 14 28 Factors Affecting Solar Energy Satisfaction among Households in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria <p>The importance of solar electrification cannot be overemphasized because of its enormous<br>contributions to clean energy supply. However, several problems that affect its use exist. Thus,<br>this paper examined the factors affecting solar energy satisfaction among households in<br>Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study utilized mainly 109 primary data obtained through<br>snowball sampling technique and applied pie charts and a binary logistic regression model as<br>tools for analyses. Results showed that about 85% of those using solar energy had encountered<br>one problem or the other. About 76.9% lacked proper guidance by their solar installers on how to<br>maintain it, 21.3% bought equipment with defects, 84.3% had no technical know-how on<br>maintaining it, while 53.7% complained of the inefficiency of the already installed energy capacity.<br>On the extent of households' problems, all the variables were positive although buying a piece of<br>defective equipment and the already installed capacity's inefficiency was significant at p&lt; 0.001.<br>In comparison, lack of proper guidance by the solar power installers and lack of technical knowhow<br>on the consumers' part on maintaining their solar equipment were both significant at p&lt;0.05.<br>In conclusion, the elasticity of the coefficient shows that a unit increase in defective equipment<br>affected the consumers much more than the other problems. The study recommends that awareness<br>should be created on the part of the consumers about the right place to buy their solar equipment<br>and on how to maintain it. On the part of the installers, government and NGOs should make<br>provisions for programs that provide skill acquisition on solar energy installation.</p> Maina, Y. B. Inuwa, N. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 9 1 41 51 Determinants of Solar Energy Demand among Households in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria <p>The study assessed the prospect of solar energy demand in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria, using<br>primary data obtained through snowball sampling method collected between June and July 2022.<br>The study employed descriptive statistics, Ordinary Least Square, and logistic regressions to<br>achieve its objectives. The result showed that 73% of the household heads are male, with 30% of<br>them as businessmen. In addition, 80% are married; while 47% have a first degree. Most have<br>income between N50, 000 and above. Most of them installed solar of N5, 00 000 to N 1, 000 000.<br>The reasons for solar demand include poor electricity supply (32%), convenience (32%),<br>comfortability (29%) and affordability (7%). About 70% of the respondents have been using solar<br>for 2 to 4 years. Similarly, 75% and 80% reported that their electricity bills and generator<br>maintenance cost have declined from N10, 000 and above to N5, 000 or less monthly after solar<br>installation. The 95% of the respondents are satisfied with solar energy with the level of their<br>Income, convenience and education on solar energy positively influencing their solar energy<br>demand at 5%, 5%, and 10% respectively. In addition, the duration of solar power supply by the<br>appliances, affordability of solar energy equipment as well as the comfort its provides coupled<br>with the poor electricity supply in the study area positively and significantly influence solar energy<br>demand at 5%, 5%, 10% and 5% respectively while reliability of the solar equipment negatively<br>influences solar energy demand. Moreover, income is the most important determinant of solar<br>energy demand with households that spent more on solar energy installation are more satisfied.<br>Therefore, the study recommends policies that improve income, reduce the cost of solar<br>installation and create more awareness of the advantages of solar power.</p> Maina, Y. B. Yusuf. A. B. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 9 1 29 40 Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Birds of Prey in North Western Region of Nigeria <p>The study aimed to determine the abundance of birds of prey in in North Western Region of<br>Nigeria, carried out between September, 2022 and January 2023, with a view to providing<br>information in a bid to establish a baseline for conservation for this group of birds. Road transect<br>line method was used to collect data on bird diversity, abundance and distribution and each site<br>was surveyed twice every month during the study period. Bird observation was carried out twice<br>daily; morning between 6:00 to 10:00 a.m. and evening between 4:00 to 6:30p.m. The species<br>relative abundance index was used to find the relative abundance in the region, whereas Shannon-<br>Wiener diversity index (H′) was used to determine species diversity. A total of thirty two (32)<br>species of 3 families were recorded including species of global conservation concern during this<br>study, indicating that the North western region of Nigeria is an important breeding, roosting, and<br>feeding habitat for several raptor species. The findings from this study provide evidence that the<br>areas can serve as a refuge for birds. Therefore, conservation efforts should as well be directed<br>towards making communities view human occupied areas as a habitat for birds, and not as a lost<br>habitat.</p> Sabo, B.B. Mohammed, S. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 9 1 52 66 Poverty Vulnerability among Smallholder Rice Farmers in North West, Nigeria <p>The study examined the poverty vulnerability of smallholder rice farming households in North<br>West of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 331<br>smallholder rice farmers using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Expected<br>Poverty Approach and Logistic regression Model were used to analyze the data collected for<br>the study. The results shows that 64.35% of smallholder rice farmers were vulnerable to future<br>poverty. According to the breakdown of poverty vulnerability by states, it was revealed that<br>poverty vulnerability was 64%, 65.97% and 62.5% in Kano, Kebbi and Jigawa States<br>respectively. The significant determinants of poverty vulnerability among the smallholder rice<br>farmers were the gender of household head, farm size, type of seeds used, access to fertilizer,<br>total farm income, price shocks, and natural shocks.The study concludes that poverty<br>vulnerability was wide spread among the smallholder rice farmers with social, economic and<br>natural factors as major drivers of poverty vulnerability.The study recommends prioritizing<br>gender mainstreaming, promoting cost-effective and sustainable access seeds and fertilizers,<br>commodity price management mechanism and adopting smart climate technologies to address<br>the underlying causes of poverty vulnerability.</p> Umar, S Mohammed, A.B., Suleiman, A. Habib, S. B. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 67 84 Fatteners’ Preferences for Breed of Sheep Attributes under Feedlot System in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria <p>The study analysed smallholder fatteners’ preference for breed of sheep attributes under feedlot<br>system in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. A Snowball sampling technique was used to select 70 sheep<br>fatteners. Five locations were purposively selected due to high concentration of sheep fatteners<br>operators. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire and was<br>subjected to descriptive statistics. The results revealed that all (100%) of the fatteners were male<br>and most (84.3%) of the fatteners were married. The average age and years of fattening experience<br>of the respondents were 46 and 26 years respectively, with average household size of 10 persons<br>and a mean flock size of 8. Majority (61.4%) of the sheep fatteners received western education and<br>85.7% of the sheep fatteners belonged to farmer cooperatives. The management practices carried<br>out by the sheep fatteners were feeding, watering, housing, animal health treatment and fattening<br>duration. Also, the result shows that almost all (95.9%) of the sheep fatteners preferred the Uda<br>and Balami breeds of sheep to any other breed because of the Carcass quality, body size, skin<br>type/colour, horn type, tail type and type of ear. The study concluded that Uda and Balami were<br>the most preferred breeds by fatteners in the study area. High cost of feed (100%) ranked as first<br>constraint followed by pest and disease problems and insecurity with 94.3% each and high cost of<br>medication (93%). The study recommends that provision of adequate and affordable feed and<br>medication, veterinary services to carter for pest and diseases and improvement in security are<br>essential in improving sheep fattening enterprise.</p> Tafida, I. Lawal, A. T. Ahmed, I. A. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 85 99 Socio-Economic Determinants of Yam Production in Ohaukwu Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria <p>The study examined the socio-economic determinants of yam production in Ohaukwu Local<br>Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study employed multistage sampling technique in<br>selection of respondents for the study. Primary data were collected from 160 respondents in the<br>study area using a structured questionnaire that was administered as interview schedule.<br>Analytical techniques such as descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the specific<br>objectives. Majority (70%) of the yam farmers were males, with mean age of 46 years. Majority<br>(62%) of the yam farmers were married; and had an average household size of 8 persons. Most<br>(39.4%) of the farmers engaged in civil service in addition to farming occupation and operated on<br>an average farm size of 1.45 hectares. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the<br>coefficient of multiple determination (R2) of the regression model was 0.945. The co-efficient of<br>sex (7873.994) had a positive sign and was statistically significant at 1% level of significance.<br>Marital status (4426.857) of the respondents bore positive relationship with quantity of yam<br>produced and statistically significant at 1% level of probability. The coefficient of household size<br>(6012.118) of the farmers had a positive relationship with the output of yam in the area. The<br>coefficient of farm size (36532.842) was found to be positive and statistically significant at 1%<br>level of probability. The result had shown that the annual income of the respondents bore positive<br>relationship with the output of yam in the area and statistically significant at 1% level of<br>probability. The F-ratio of 255.209 which was significant at 1% probability level showed that the<br>coefficient of the explanatory variables included in the model were statistically different from zero,<br>thus the goodness-of-fit of the model and its explanatory power. Constraint to the yam production<br>were of infrastructural, institutional and economic factors as bad roads, lack of Storage facilities,<br>lack of improved varieties, lack of government assistance and lack of extension agents’ visit among<br>others. The null hypothesis (Ho) which stated that the socio-economic characteristics of the yam<br>producers have no significant influence on the quantity of yam produced in the area was tested<br>using F-test at 5% level of significance, rejected and the alternative accepted. This study concludes<br>that yam production is profitable although the farmers were hindered by infrastructural,<br>institutional and economic factors. Agricultural extension agents who are saddled with the<br>responsibility of disseminating timely, complete actionable information should be repositioned<br>and strengthened to ensure farmers access to information, through appropriate channels. This will<br>shift the balance between success and failure of the farmers.</p> ESHEYA, S. E. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 100 114 Analysis of Socio-economic, Breeding and Management Practices in Meleagris gallopavo (Turkey) and Numida meleagris (Guinea fowl) in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, <p>The study investigates socio-economics and management practices of turkey and guinea fowl in<br>Kaduna metropolis Kaduna State. Fifty turkey and guinea fowl producers were randomly selected<br>from 25 communities in the area. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire.<br>Descriptive statistics was used to analyzed the data collected. The results showed that 32% of the<br>producers used personal saving as their source of funds because of bottlenecks associated with<br>bank loans and also, because of pressure of payment from friends/relatives. The results further<br>show that 94% of the producers reared their turkey and guinea fowl in steel cages as they were<br>staying in rented houses. The production practices practiced by the producers include proper<br>sanitation, routine vaccination, and curative measures. Majority of the producers fed their birds<br>with commercial feed so that they will grow fast enough to reach table size, while 72% supplement<br>with grains or by products such as wheat offal or maize offal in addition to commercial feed. In<br>addition, majority (66%) fed their birds with borehole water, 10% with well water, 16% with tap<br>water and 8% with any available water. It can be concluded from this investigation that<br>Meleaagris gallopavo and Numida meleagris are resources that could form a lucrative enterprise<br>in the study area with minimum funds and human capital involvement. Therefore, there is room<br>for improvement through availability funds for expansion.</p> Suleiman, I.O Sani, U Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 115 135 Impact of Credit and Thrift Cooperative Societies on Savings Mobilization and Poverty Status of Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria <p>The study analyzed impact of credit and thrift cooperative societies on savings mobilization and<br>poverty status of farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used<br>to select 162 members and 162 non-members of credit and thrift cooperatives from whom data<br>were collected with aid of structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using<br>descriptive statistics, poverty indicators, z-test and multiple regression model. Results showed that<br>mean age of the members and non-members were 44 years and 45 years respectively. Mean farm<br>size of the members and non-members were 1.02 hectares and 0.97 hectares respectively, while,<br>mean annual farm income of the members and non-members were N210,124.74 and N163,412.33<br>respectively. Members and non-members of credit and thrift cooperatives saved annual mean<br>amount of N115,216.68 and N70,373.76 respectively. Result showed that farmer cooperators had<br>access to credit facilities (X = 3.86). Also, 33.33% of the cooperators saved on monthly basis.<br>Furthermore, members and non-members of credit and thrift cooperative societies had poverty<br>line of N13,827.35 and N12,814.08 respectively. Also had poverty incidence of 0.3146 and 0.3863<br>respectively, and poverty gap of 0.4143 and 0.5356 respectively. Result of Z-test analysis showed<br>significant mean difference in annual savings and poverty line of members and non-members at<br>p˂0.05. The OLS regression analysis with linear function as lead equation posted R2 value of<br>0.7031, and showed that number of persons in the group, value of asset, monthly subscription,<br>age, education level and gross income were significant determinants of savings mobilization<br>among credit and thrift cooperatives. There was significant difference in annual savings of<br>members of credit and thrift cooperatives and the non-members. Membership to credit and thrift<br>cooperative society reduced poverty level of farmers. It was recommended that farmers should be<br>encouraged and enlightened by relevant government and non-government agencies on the need<br>and importance of forming and belonging to credit and thrift cooperative societies.</p> Ogbonna, S. I. Kaine, A. I. N. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 136 154 Comparative Economic of Different Weed Control Methods and Poultry Manure Rates among Different Maize (Zea mays L.) varieties <p>Different Field experiment was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy season to evaluate the<br>efficacy of different weed control methods and poultry manure rates on yield and economic returns<br>in three varieties of maize (SAMMAZ 15, SAMMAZ 21 and SAMMAZ 35) at Kano in Sudan<br>savanna zone of Nigeria. The trials consisted of six weed control methods (S-Metolachlor 290 g/L<br>+ Atrazine 370 g/L at 2.0kg a.i. ha-1 followed by Nicosulfuron at 100 g a.i.ha-1, S-Metolachlor<br>290g/L + Atrazine 370 g/L at 2.0kg a.i. ha-1 followed by Bentazone 480 g/L at 2.5kg a.i. ha-1,<br>Metolachlor 375 g/L + Terbuthylazine 125 g/L + Mesotrione 37.5 g/L at 2.5 kg a.i ha-1 followed<br>by Nicosulfuron at 0.1 kg a.i. ha-1, Metolachlor 375g/L + Terbuthylazine 125 g/L + Mesotrione<br>37.5 g/L at 2.5kg a.i ha-1 followed by Bentazone at 2.5kg a.i. ha-1, two hoe weeded at 3 and 6 WAS<br>and Weedy check) and three levels of poultry manure (0, 4, and 8 t ha-1 and a recommended NPK<br>fertilizer as check at the rate of 120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O ha-1). The experiment was<br>laid out in a split-split plot design with variety allocated to the main plot, poultry manure to the<br>sub-plot while weed control method to the sub-sub plot, and was replicated three times. The result<br>from the study showed that Metolachlor 290g/L + Atrazine 370 g/L at 2.0kg a.i. ha-1 followed by<br>Bentazone at 2.5kg a.i. ha-1 in combination with 8 t ha-1 poultry manure suppressed weed<br>infestation and increased the growth and grain yield of maize. Net income was higher when<br>herbicide in combination with poultry manure at 8 t ha-1 was used.</p> Garko, M. S., Danbazau, S. A., Yawale, M. A. Kabir, A. M. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 155 175 Assessment of Farmers Preference for Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Bichi Local Government Area, Kano <p>This study assessed farmer preference for agricultural extension services delivery in Bichi local<br>government area of Kano State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in the<br>selection farmers. The first stage involved purposive selection of three (3) ward due to<br>concentration of farmers working in group. The second stage involved simple random selection of<br>83 farmers, while snowball method was used and identified sixteen (16) extension agents working<br>in the area. The primary data was obtained using structured questionnaires. The data was analyzed<br>using descriptive and inferential (binary logic regression model) statistics. The result reveals the<br>approaches used by extension agents in their services delivery to be farmer group interaction<br>(87.5%) as well as training and visit (87.5%) approach. The services offered to farmers were proper<br>and recommended methods of fertilizer application (93.8%), use of improved seed (93.8%),<br>linking farmers with agro input dealers (93.8%), pre-season training (93.8%) conduct of<br>demonstration plots (93.8%) and dissemination of innovation that come along the way (100%).<br>The findings also show that educational status of the respondents has significant influence on<br>access (-0.715) and use (-0.764) of the extension services provided at one percent probability level<br>respectively while (42.2%) of farmers showed preference to advice rendered on proper and<br>recommended methods of fertilizer application. It is therefore concluded that farmer’s group<br>training and training and visit were the most approaches used by extension agents in their services<br>delivery with services delivered as effective to some while ineffective to others with most<br>preference to different methods of fertilizer application. It is therefore recommended that extension<br>service should be rendered as at when due putting in to consideration the need of the farmers.</p> Sani, U. Abubakar, M.A. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 176 185 Analysis of Price Fluctuation and its Effect on Marketing of Smoked Fish in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State, Nigeria <p>This study examined the analysis of price fluctuation of smoked fish and its effect in Maiduguri<br>metropolitan council of Borno State. Data collected for the study were obtained from both primary<br>and secondary data source. Primary data were obtained through the use of structure questionnaire<br>and market survey while secondary source of information were obtained from journals and<br>internet. Fifty Questionnaires were randomly distributed to the smoked fish marketers in<br>Maiduguri Monday Market and Baga Road Fish Market. The data were analyzed using both<br>descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Result showed that majority of the respondents were<br>young (40.0%), literate (100%) married (34.0%), men (74.0%) that had 11-15 years of marketing<br>experience (46.0%) and household sizes of 6-11persons (72.0%). Also most of the smoked fish<br>sellers obtained their funds from family and friends (34%) and most of the marketers were retailers<br>(72.0%). The study revealed that the major (70.0%) cause of price fluctuation in the study area<br>was cost of transportation. Findings indicate that fish size, fish quantity, consumer’s choice<br>influenced the price of smoke fish to fluctuate in the study area. Also, average marketer earned<br>₦4,300.00 as gross margin per 50kg carton. The major constraint to smoked fish marketing is cost<br>of transportation (60.0%). Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that fish marketing<br>is a profitable and efficient venture. Therefore, farmers and young graduate should be encouraged<br>to venture into the business which would help reduce unemployment among young educated<br>Nigerians. Also construction of good roads and reduction of fuel price by government in other to<br>reduce high cost of transporting smoked fish was recommended.</p> Jibrin, S. A., Bulama, Y. M Idi, A. S. and Orjiakor, C. C. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 186 200 Analysis of Farmers Perception on Socio-Economic Benefits of Rabbit Production in Gokana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the perception of rabbit production among rural dwellers in Gokana Local<br>Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90<br>rabbit farmers. Data collection was through structured questionnaire and analyzed using both<br>descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression<br>analysis. Findings reveal that the mean age of the rabbit farmers was 48.2 years, 83.3% of the<br>entire sampled farmers were males while 16.7% were females. Majority of the rabbit farmers<br>(61.1%) were also married with a mean household size of 7 persons. The results also reveal that<br>consumption not deprived of cultural and religious bias, high efficiency in converting forage to<br>meat (= 3.39), short gestation period (= 3.36), high probability of replenishing invested capital<br>(= 3.33), low cost of production (= 3.30), high medicinal value (= 3.26) and high prolificacy (=<br>3.26) were the mean responses of farmers on their perception of rabbit production in the study<br>area. The study also revealed that lack of training opportunities (= 3.23), lack of finance (= 3.19)<br>and lack of manpower (= 3.16) were the major challenges that impeded the production of rabbit<br>by farmers in the study area. The result of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis<br>revealed that gender, age, marital status, level of education, farming experience and membership<br>of association significantly influenced rabbit production in the study area. From the findings, it<br>was concluded that the farmers generally had positive perception of rabbit production in the study<br>area. The study recommended that efforts should be directed towards making favourable<br>government policies that will address challenges such as lack of training opportunities, lack of<br>finance, lack of manpower among others which impeded rabbit production in the study area.</p> Ominikari, A. G. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 201 213 Economic Prospects of some Ecosystem Services Accessed by Communities around Girei Forest Reserve of Adamawa State <p>The economic prospects of ecosystem services accessed by communities around Girei forest<br>reserve were investigated. This was as a result of over dependence on the forest reserve as a source<br>of livelihood. A stratified random sampling was used to interview 180 household heads on their<br>socio-economic characteristics and the benefits they derived from the forest reserve. Relevant<br>descriptive statistical tools were used to analyze the data. The results showed that most households<br>were headed by males 91.3% while 8.7% of the households were headed by females. The mean<br>annual income of the respondents was ₦267,401. A lot of benefits were obtained from the forest<br>reserve such as honey, firewood, poles, medicines, grass etc. The estimated annual monetary value<br>of ecosystem provisioning services obtained from the forest reserve is ₦25,907,400 per annum.<br>However, due to the enormous benefits derived from the forest reserve and the unsustainable<br>harvest of the forest resources as a source of livelihood, quantitative assessment of the indigenous<br>tree species in Girei forest reserve was also carried out. To achieve these;;the relative frequency,<br>density, relative dominance, and importance value index of tree species in the forest reserve were<br>determined. The tree with the highest dominance Tamarindus indica (39.1) while the least is<br>Prosopis africana (0.54). The importance value index shows that Tamarindus indica (28.67) has<br>the highest value index while the least is Parkia biglobosa (1.90). The result of diversity of the tree<br>species was 1.941 using Shanno’s diversity index which indicates uncertainty of the species in the<br>study area. Therefore, there is need for urgent concerted management and policy actions which<br>are geared towards monitoring the health and integrity of Girei forest reserve such it can continue<br>to generate ecosystem services which are beneficial to the present and future generations.</p> Adedotun, A. Ogunbode, A. S. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 214 231 Effect of Crop Farmers-Pastoralist Conflict on Crop Output in Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>This study was conducted to determine the effect of crop farmers-pastoralist conflict on crop<br>output in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling methods was used to select<br>24 communities and 192 respondents (Crop farmers) from the study area. Descriptive statistic and<br>regression model were used to analyse the data collected. The results showed that majority<br>(67.23%) of the respondents were between 31 – 50 years; 70.1% of crop farmers had western<br>education and 80.7% of the respondents were married. Furthermore, the respondents had farming<br>experience of 7 – 20 years and above with 48.4% having less than 20 years of farming experience.<br>The multiple regression result showed that there is a strong correlation between the effect of<br>conflict and output/income of crop farmer. Furthermore, the result further indicated losses in<br>monetary term of N87,875,00 arising from the loss of farm produce. The major constraints to the<br>strategies taken by government to resolve the conflict were weakness of state institution (97.95%),<br>slow response to crises (97.92%) and excessive use of force (police/military) in mitigating the<br>conflicts. Conclusively, the farmers-pastoralist conflict had negative effect on crop farmers’<br>output/income. It was recommended that state institutions need to be pro-active enough to nip the<br>problem of crop farmers – pastoralist conflicts in the bud, Law enforcement agencies should be<br>alive to their constitutional roles and government should strengthen the security around farmers<br>and herders across the country by providing necessary training and sophisticated security<br>equipment are required to control outburst of crisis. Government should make provision for<br>customary institution to settle crop farmers-pastoralists conflicts rather than the courts, and a<br>joint peace and conflict resolution committee consisting of leadership of farm community and the<br>herders be constituted to mediate among conflicting groups.</p> SILAS, S. B GAMBO, I HASSAN, H. I. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 232 248 Assessment of Early Growth Response of Albizia lebbeck to Different Seed Sources, Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers in the Nursery <p>A field experiment was carried out to assess the effects of seed source, NPK fertilizer and organic<br>fertilizers on the early growth parameters of womens toung (Alibizia lebbeck). The experiment was<br>conducted at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture Shabu-<br>Lafia Campus, Nasarawa State University Keffi. It was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block<br>Design (RCBD), analyzed with respect to three sources of seed and three (3) types of manure, the<br>growth variables measured were: plant height, collar girth, leaves number, leave length, and leave<br>width. The results of parameter assessed on the basis of locations shows that seedlings from<br>Wamba had the highest mean height of 8.19±2.60cm at 14 week, closely followed by seedling from<br>Keffi with mean height of 7.93±2.36cm while seedling from Lafia had the least mean height of<br>7.32±2.23cm. The result of leave count revealed that seedling from Wamba had the highest leave<br>count of 90.71±41.72 followed by Keffi with 81.84±39.39 while leave count of seedlings from Lafia<br>had the least leave count of 77.71±35.83. The result of growth variables revealed that,<br>Albizialebbeck seedlings treated with NPKwere7.66±2.18cm for height, 1.68±0.48mm for collar<br>girth, 95.42±38.81 for number of leaf, 1.39±0.54cmfor leave length while mean value of seedlings<br>treated with poultry dropping were 8.65±2.76cm for height, 1.83±0.46mm for collar girth,<br>101.01±38.48 for number of leaves, 1.47±0.58cm for leave length while mean value of seedlings<br>treated with cow dung were 8.45±1.99cm for height, 1.55±0.49mm for collar girth 85.91±23.42 for<br>number of leaves, and 1.23±0.53cm for leave length. The result of the ANOVA revealed that, the<br>effects of location and all the treatments were highly significant on plant height, collar girth,<br>number of leaves, leave length and leave width respectively at P&lt;0.05 probability level. It is<br>evidence from this study that seeds from different source demonstrated different growth<br>performance. It also showed that organic manure (poultry dropping) support rapid growth of<br>Albizialebbeck seedlings more appropriately in the nursery.</p> SOBA, T.M., CLEMENT, S. A., NDAGI, H. I., OBADIAH, C. ABDULMALIK, A. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 249 262 Impact of USAID Markets Programme on Sorghum Farmers’ Livelihood in Northwest, Nigeria <p>This study analysed the Impact of Participation in USAID MARKETS Programme on Sorghum<br>Farmers’ Livelihood in Kaduna and Kano States, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was<br>employed in sample selection. Six hundred and twenty six (626) respondents were randomly<br>selected for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and were analysed<br>using both descriptive (frequency and mean) and inferential statistics (PSM, Z-test, logit and<br>probit). The result of level of participation showed about 44% of the participating sorghum<br>farmers participated only in a few USAID MARKETS programme, i.e. they received only one or<br>two packages. The decision to participate in USAID MARKETS programme is significantly<br>determined by sex, primary occupation, marital status, household size and membership of the<br>cooperative while the intensity of participation is significantly determined by age, sex, primary<br>occupation, educational level, household size, farming experience, membership of cooperative and<br>access to credit. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was used in estimating the impact<br>of participation in USAID MARKETS programme on the total output of USAID MARKETS<br>sorghum farmers where participants had an increase of 242kg/ha in output while the Potential<br>Outcome mean (POMean) was 2829kg/ha. The Nearest Neighbour showed an increase of<br>₦52,072/ha while the Potential Outcome means (POMean) was ₦89,732. The programme should<br>encourage farmer associations which can play an important role in the process of adoption.<br>Households should increase their human assets by educating the younger members of the<br>households, this will enable their knowledge and skills to be improved.</p> Abdullahi, M., Idi, A.S. Hassan, A.H. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 263 276 Structure and Performance of Cowpea Marketing in Biu Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria <p>This study analyzed the structure and performance of cowpea marketing in Biu Local<br>Government Area, Borno State. The specific objectives were to: describe the socioeconomic<br>characteristics of cowpea marketers; determine the structure of cowpea<br>marketing; analyze the performance of the marketing and identify problems<br>associated with marketing of cowpea. Five cowpea markets were selected for the<br>study namely: Biu, Miringha, Mandaragrau, Mandafuma and Buratai. Twenty<br>respondents were randomly selected from each of the 5 markets giving a total of 100<br>respondents. Primary data and secondary information were used for the study and<br>the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini Coefficient and marketing<br>margin. The findings of the study indicated that majority (62%) of the respondents<br>were males, in the active age group of 31-50 years. The educational level of the<br>respondents showed that 85% had various form of education and 96% were married.<br>The Gini Coefficient for cowpea market participants showed an unequal distribution<br>in the income generated with Gini Coefficient of 0.39009. The cowpea marketing<br>margins were 27.3%, 30.8% and 28.4% for retailers, wholesalers and the marketers<br>that does both wholesale and retail respectively. Major problems associated with<br>cowpea marketing in the study area are insecurity (94%), inadequate storage<br>facilities (93%), insect pest infestation (91%) and high cost of transportation (78%).<br>The study concluded that there is a relatively low concentration in cowpea market in<br>the study area. The high level of market concentration is an indication of presence of<br>perfectly competitive structure in the cowpea market. The study recommended that<br>government and non-governmental agencies should empower the marketers through<br>the provision of micro credit facilities to encourage more people to go into cowpea<br>marketing</p> Kyari, M.B., Sulumbe, I.M., Kamai, N. Bukar, U. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 9 1 277 288