Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess <p>Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to publishing and disseminating original research papers in Agricultural Economics, other fields of Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Social and Management Sciences. The journal also welcomes review articles and short communications. It is published on line twice a year.</p> Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria en-US Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Socio-economic Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cassava Varieties among Crop Farmers in ADP Zone I, Jigawa State, Nigeria http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/137 <p>The study examined the Socio-economic factors affecting adoption of improved cassava varieties among farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A 4-stage sampling technique was used to elicit information from 150 respondents through structure questionnaire and interview schedule. Both judgmental and simple random sampling procedure was adopted in the study. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools such as frequency tables, percentages, mean, standard deviation and Probit model. Majority of the respondents were males (56.0%), Married (72.0%) and members of cooperative movement (54.0%). Majority (82.7%) were having primary, secondary or tertiary level of education with average monthly income of N62,073.33k. The clienteles were involved in cassava production on part time basis (58.7%). Majority of the respondents were aware of TMS 92/0057 95.3%), TME419 (67.3%) and NR8083 (65.3%) but adopted TMS419 (32.0%), TMS96/0002 (30.0%) and NR8083 (29.3%) varieties mostly. The mean age of the respondents is 49 years, average farming experience of 26 years and mean land areas under cultivation of 3.0 Acres respectively. The determinant factors of adoption of improved cassava varieties are; educational level, age, sex, complexity of the varieties, adaptability to innovation to the socio cultural system of the clienteles and compatibility of the varieties. The perceived measures for adoption of improved cassava varieties are provision of inputs, subsidy and labor, market outlets as well as loan facilities to the clienteles among others. It was recommended that, favorable measures of adoption of improved cassava varieties such as provision of farm inputs 76.0%, agricultural labor subsidy 66.0% and provision of loan facilities/market outlets for cassava( 53.3% should be enhanced and the positive determinant factors of adoption of improved cassava varieties among the respondents. adaptability and appropriateness of the technology. Compatibility(X14) has positive and significant relationship at 5% levels for the improved varieties showing that the compatibility of the innovation increases the adoption of the innovation when the technology is similar and agreed with the existing culture it will hasten the adoption of such technology. It is recommended that extension agents must try to transfer simple innovations to rural farmers rather than complex innovations. Also, agricultural extensions must adopt to changes taking place in rural setting and provide answers to the problems facing the rural populace.</p> Kundiri, M.M., Bello, O.G Mamman, B Y., Makinta, U., Chamo, A M Kenneth, A. I Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 20 32 Influence of Variety and Ensiling Time on Physical, Chemical and Total Bacterial Counts of Ensiled Lablab and Hay in Semi-Arid Region of Borno State http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/136 <p>The experiment was conducted to assess physical, chemical and total bacterial counts of ensiled Lablab and Hay as influenced by variety and periods in semi-arid region of Borno state. The experiment was carried out at the Animal Science Laboratory, University of Maiduguri. 50kg of fresh leaves from three Lablab varieties were used for the experiment. Size reduction was done in the first part to 3cm, wilted and 3kg were ensiled in mini silo then replicated three times, each variety were then subjected to 30, 40 and 50days fermentation and silage quality were analysed using Completely Randomized Design. The second part (25kg) was spilt into two, then cured under sun and under Shade for 3 days. Results showed no significant difference on the main effects of silage. CP for all the varieties ranges between 11.32 to 12.26%. Furthermore, there was significant difference observed on effects of days of silage on chemical composition. Silage at 50days recorded the highest DM and OM with 90.4 and 87.6% respectively. All fibre fraction in the period measured and interaction effects between varieties and days of silage had significant (P&lt;0.05) difference, with 50days silage recording the highest DM, OM, CF, NDF and ADF for all varieties. However, no significant difference was observed on the main effects of varieties on mineral composition. Quality under different periods maintain green colour at 30days of silage for all varieties. The chemical composition of the two curing methods used for the lablab varieties revealed that DM, OM, NDF, ADF were higher in sun dried hay while CP was higher in shade dried. Physical characteristics of lablab hay under the two curing methods were rated good. In conclusion, white and brown varieties of lablab gave better DM and CP at 30 to 40days silage. Appearance was very good at 30 and 40days of silage and both sun and shade dried lablab were excellent when cured for 3days.</p> Girgiri, A.Y. Sani, I., Mahmoud, A.A., Joseph, J.N Adamu, J Bunu, M Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 9 19 RAPTORS IN BATURIYA BIRDS SANCTUARY NORTHWESTERN, NIGERIA http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/138 <p>The dramatic increase in human pressure, deforestation and general decrease in tree cover, overgrazing and erosion, pesticide use, over-hunting and fishing, and sometimes direct persecution of predators, all impact negatively on birds of prey population. The study aimed to determine the distribution, diversity and abundance of birds of prey in Baturiya wetlands Nigeria, carried out in March to August, 2021, with a view to providing information in a bid to establish a baseline for conservation for this group of birds. Transect line method was used for the bird survey. The survey was carried out for a period of six (6) months using transect line method and each site was surveyed twice every month during the study period. Bird observation was carried out twice daily; morning between 6:00 to 10:00 a.m. and evening between 4:00 to 6:30p.m by walking slowly along the transect line. Birds were counted as birds seen and birds inflight were also counted. Transect line survey method detected a total of 431 individual birds of prey that belong to fifteen (15) species of 2 families. Accipitridae with 13 species is the richest family in species number and Falconidae with 2 species. Out of the 15 species recorded 8 are resident, 4 Palearctic migrant and 3 intra-African migrant. Three species of global conservation concern were also recorded; the Near threatened Red-necked falcon (Falco chicquera) and Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) and the Endangered Martial eagle (Polemaetusbellicosus ). This survey shows that, the Baturiya bird sanctuary still retained a considerable number of birds of prey species that normally occur in West Africa. However, in order to maintain the bird community and other biodiversity of the wetland, the management needs to increase conservation measures that will ensure the protection of the wetlands. This can be done through training and re-training of more forest guards to ensure protection of the wetlands.</p> Bashir Babura Sabo Salisu. Mohammed Mustapha Zakariya Karkarna Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 33 47 Price Trend and Integration of Cowpea Markets in Biu Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/135 <p>The study analysed the price trend and integration of prices of cowpea in Biu and Miringa markets of Biu Local Government Areas of Borno State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: describe the trend of cowpea price variation between 2016– 2018; determine the degree of variation in the price of cowpea overtime in the study area and analyze integration between the markets. Secondary data were used for the study. Data on monthly prices of 100kg of cowpea for Biu and Miringa Markets were obtained from Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWSNET) office Biu Branch for the period of three (3) years (2016-2018). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The descriptive statistics used was graphical presentation of the trend of price data. While the inferential statistics used were the unit root test and Engle and Granger co-integration analysis. This study revealed that there were upward and downward trends in prices of cowpea grain in both Biu and Miringa markets for the period of the study. The variations observed in the prices were influenced by time and space. The stationarity test (ADF unit root test) showed that all the price series were non-stationary at levels. On differencing, stationarity was attained indicating that the prices were integrated of order one, which showed co-movement of prices between the two markets. Engle and Granger co-integration tests showed the existence of two co-integration equations. There is a strong need for private organizations and the Government through the producers and marketers of cowpea to provide more and better dissemination of market intelligence and information among the farmers and traders to improve knowledge which would help make the price more stable.</p> Y. M. Bulama A. A. Ghide I. Galadima Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 1 8 EFFICACY OF REPLACING FISH MEAL WITH EARTHWORM (Eudrilus euguniea) MEAL ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CATFISH FINGERLINGS (Clarias gariepinus, BURCHEL 1822) http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/139 <p>The efficacy of earthworm (Eudrilus euguniea) meal on growth and survival of African catfish fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) was carried out in Maiduguri with the aim of producing substantial amount of the earthworm to replace fish meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus for growth and survival. Earthworms were produced using mixture of animal dung (cow, sheep and rabbit) by introducing 100 unsexed adults on 5kg of the animal dung. Fingerlings were purchased from Garbati fish farm located in Damboa road and conveyed to teaching and research fish farm university of Maiduguri where the research was conducted. Forty (40% CP) diet was formulated by replacing fish meal with earthworm at the substitution level of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and fed to one hundred and fifty (150) forty days old Clarias gariepinus grouped into five treatments according to the replacement level of the fish meal with the earthworm. The feeding trial lasted for 90 days. Data generated from the research were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result presented better growth Performance in fingerlings fed 0 and 50% replacement level of fish meal with earthworm. Therefore, fish meal can be replaced with earthworm in the diet of Clarias gariepinus at 50% for better growth.</p> Mohammed, Z. B., K, G. Modu. Umar, H. M., U. Usman H. M. Shettima Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 48 56 DETERMINANTS OF WEALTH STATUS AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTHERN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/140 <p>The study analyzed of wealth status among farming households in Southern Taraba State, Nigeria. The study objectives were to; describe the socio-economic characteristics of farming households, to describe the wealth status categories of the households and examine the wealth status indicators of the farming households in the study area. Multi stage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. A total of 142 respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of active head of households was 34 years. About 68% of the respondents were married with mean household size of 8 persons. Majority of respondents (99%) have one form of education or the other. The result revealed that wealth indicators revealed that, 61% of the respondents live in mud houses, 59% of the respondents can only afford 1 hectare of land for cultivation. About 52% rely on well water, 64% has generators as source of power, and 76% live in houses with less than 4 rooms. Wealth status categories based on monthly income shows that, about 78% of the respondents are in lower class compare to 11% and 10% of middle and upper class respectively. Multiple regression analysis, shows that, R-squared was 0.989 indicating that the explanatory variables explained 98.9% changes in the dependent variable. Access to health was negative and significant at 1%. Number of sleeping rooms, source of water, means of communication and farm size were positive and significant at 1%, while number of meals per day was positive and significant at 5%. However, number of sources of incomes was insignificant at conventional level. It was concluded that the sampled farming households were poor. It is therefore recommended that government at all levels and non-governmental organizations should introd</p> Tsukutoda, I.I., Rukwe, D.T., Bidoli, T. D Orji,P.O Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 8 1 57 69 Assessment of Women Local Cucumber (Ngulli) Marketers in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/141 <p>The study assessed local Cucumber (Ngulli) marketing among women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the women cucumber marketers, estimate the marketing margins, examine their marketing channels and constraints faced in marketing in the study area. Two stage sampling was used to select 50 respondents from the study area. Descriptive statistical tools and marketing margin analysis were the analytical tools used for the study. The results of the study revealed that all the respondents were retailers handling less than a bag of cucumber, majority (74%) within the age range of 21-40, married (80%) with Qur’anic education (76%) and had income between ₦20,000-₦50,000 (60%). The respondents bought cucumber directly from the farm gate (50%) and sell directly to consumers (90%). The results for the marketing margin revealed a margin of 25.03%. The major constraints faced were lack of financial support, seasonal scarcity of cucumber and high purchase price. The study recommends that the marketers should form cooperatives or associations in order to enjoy economies of scale such as in transportation, access to credit and bulk purchase. Also, Financial support specifically for the women marketers by the government, NGO’s and financial institutions would go a long way in increasing their scale, returns and would ease some of the problems encountered in marketing.</p> Ghide, A. A. Ali, F. T Rabiu, M. M. Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 70 81 Preliminary Survey of Parasitism of Leaf Roller, Sylepta derogata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvales: Malvaceae) in Maiduguri, Nigeria http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/142 <p>This study was carried out in Maiduguri in north eastern Nigeria during the cropping seasons of 2018 and 2019 to determine the seasonal infestation rate, larval abundance and parasitism of Syleptaderogata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffaL. Data collection was from 30 farmer fields planted with roselle plants. Data on plant infestation, pest abundance and parasitism were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean percent plant infestation by S. derogataper farmers’ field ranged from 84% in 2019 to 88% in 2018, and was not significantly different between years. Mean number of S. derogata larvae per farmers’ field was significantly higher in 2018 (83) than in 2019 (69). In both years, parasitization by microgastrinae was high (97%-98%), whilst that by Bracon sp. was low (2%-3%). Mean total larval parasitism per farmers’ field significantly varied between years, and was particularly higher (18%) in 2018 than in 2019 (5%). In conclusion, results indicate that S. derogata is seasonally responsible for heavy infestation of roselle plants in parts of north eastern Nigeria. Microgastrinae accounts for a high proportion of host parasitization, whilst that by Bracon sp. is negligible. Total larval parasitism is seasonally low, and insufficient to control this pest in roselle grown in this locality.</p> Mailafiya, D. M Mari, J. B Yakubu, H. Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 82 89 Assessment of Factors that Affect Market Orientation of Cassava Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/143 <p>The study examined market orientation and market information sources for cassava farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. With the use of structured questionnaire, data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, sources of market information, specific market information available to cassava farmers, market orientation and entrepreneurial competence. Descriptive statistical tools (frequency counts, percentages, mean) and inferential statistical tool [Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC)] were used for data analysis. Results revealed that majority (73.3%) were male with mean age of 46.48 years, and 73.3% had formal education. Most (62.5%) of the farmers had high market orientation and most sought information was on post-harvest technologies. However, the cassava farmers used less of marketing websites (17.5%), extension services (27.5%), email (29.2) and social media (35.8%) as sources of market information, and sought less of agricultural extension service information (34.2%). The study concluded that selected socio-economic characteristics and entrepreneurial competences were insignificant toward market orientation in cassava production. The study recommended that market orientation efforts should be geared toward cassava producers regardless of socio-economic status and entrepreneurial competence. Also, cassava farmers association should be willing to collaborate with extension services to build Market Information System that will be suitable to fill their specific needs at becoming market-oriented in cassava production.</p> Akinwale, J. A. Owoade, E. O. Soneye, O. V Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 90 102 SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS AMONG RURAL FARMING FAMILIES IN JIGAWA STATE, NIGERIA http://jaeess.com.ng/index.php/jaeess/article/view/144 <p>This study was designed to analyze the food security status among rural farming families in Jigawa state. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 184 respondents. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire with the help of well-trained enumerators. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression and food security index. Result revealed that rural farming families were predominantly male (71.7%) and most were married (79.9%), with one form of education or another (67.4%). The mean age for the households’ head was 42 years and the mean household size was 10 persons per household. The mean for farming experience and annual farm income of the respondents were 21.9 years and ₦ 32,238 respectively. Using the recommended calorie required approach the study revealed that 30.4% and 69.6% of the households were food secure and food insecure respectively. A Logit regression model made up of nine regressors was specified. Households size (P&lt;0.01), farm size (P&lt;0.05), farm income (P&lt;0.1), educational level of the household head (P&lt;0.01) and household head access to credit facilities (P&lt;0.05), were found to determine the food security status of the farming families in the study area. The three most important challenges faced by the households were inadequate supply of farm inputs 41.8%, pests and diseases 20.1%, limited access to credits 18.5%. Based on the recommended energy level of 2, 900 Kilocalories per person per day it could be concluded that the study area is food insecure since a higher proportion of the sample households are food insecure.</p> Abdulrazaq Semiyu Alim Salisu Ibrahim Aliyu Yahaya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 103 113