Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences <p>Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to publishing and disseminating original research papers in Agricultural Economics, other fields of Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Social and Management Sciences. The journal also welcomes review articles and short communications. It is published on line twice a year.</p> Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria en-US Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Ethnobotany of Weeds: Weed Flora of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm, Maiduguri Sudan Savanna, Borno State. <p>A survey was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm (Sudan Savanna region of Nigeria) Maiduguri Borno State, between July and September, 2019. With aim of identifying weed species at the site, frequency of occurrence, morphological characteristics and their uses. The outcome of the survey shows that 51 (fifty-one) different weed species were identified belonging to 23 families (twenty-three). Most of the weeds identified have annual life cycle in nature except for some few weeds from tree seedlings which have perennial life cycle. Twenty (20) weeds species have high occurrence (above 70%). Morphologically, only the Poaceae families are among the grass type, Cyperaceae belonging to sedge type.All other 21 families are from the broad leaved type but further classified as shrubs, semi woody and woody plants. Almost all the weeds identified have medicinal, fodder, soup and mulch cover value to animals and man. Most important among them are Corchorus olitorius L., Panicum maximum Linn, Chloris pilosa Schumach., Faidherbia albida A. Cahev., Crotalaria medicaginea L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T.</p> Kajidu, Y. B. Bassi, J. A. Gana, M., Kingimi, M. Yamba, I. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-28 2021-11-28 7 2 1 10 Growth and Yield of Tomato in Response to Application of Different Organic Manures on an Alfisol in Mokwa Southern Guinea Savannah, Niger State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to investigate the effects of different organic manure sources to access the growth and yield of tomato in Mokwa Southern guinea savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. The study was carried out in Teaching and Research Farm of Niger State College of Agriculture in 2019 cropping season. Mokwa lies on Longitude 9.23940 N and latitude 5.31030E. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The treatment consisted of 20t/ha of each of kitchen waste, poultry droppings, cow dung and a control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The result of this study revealed that some plant nutrient such as N and P are very low and hence they can be supplemented by some organic manure such as poultry droppings. The optimum yield can be obtained in Mokwa and other agro-ecological zone, if 20t/ha-1 of poultry droppings was applied to 1 hectare of land, the optimum yield can be obtained under good agronomic practices.</p> Mohammed. T Ibrahim, H., Mohammed, A Mohammed, S. G. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 11 17 Perceived Effectiveness of Extension Service Delivery among Women Farmers Household Heads in Borno State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the perception of women farmer’s household’s heads on the effectiveness of extension service delivery in Borno state, Nigeria. Both primary and secondary source of information were used for the study. Multistage sampling technique was employed for the study. Structured questionnaire was administered to 270 respondents as the sample size. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, Percentages, means, standard deviation and Likert type scales were used for data analysis. Extension had succeeded in changing traditional to modern farming practices alongside the Knowledge of; modern technologies (4.23), understanding research-based information (2.58), Attitude; less suspicious of scientific recommendations (3.88), more open to using modern technologies (3.43), Skills; more competent in the use of modern farming/ practices (2.58), local feeds formulation (3.09), selection of high valued enterprise (3.39), Aspiration; boast morale towards farming (2.6). Inadequate demonstration materials, inappropriate schedules for extension meetings, lack of cooperation by extension agents, were rated 1st and identified as the most critical problems to effective extension service delivery in the study area. The study recommended that, schedules of extension meetings should take into cognizance the schedule of women with regards to their household chores.</p> Shehu, H., Bzugu Bzugu, P. M. Abu, I. A. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 18 31 Analysis of Cowpea Farmers’ Awareness on Pesticide Usage and Safety Measures in Magumeri Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria <p>The study analysed the awareness of cowpea farmers on pesticide use and safety measures in<br>Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. A total of 86 cowpea farmers were<br>selected for the study using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were collected using a<br>structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Findings from the<br>study revealed that majority (74.4%) of the respondents do not read instructions on the pesticide<br>label before applying to their cowpea farm. The least (27.3%) who read, do not comprehend the<br>information on the label. About 34% of the respondents neither contact extension officers nor<br>others for clarification and usage. The results further revealed that majority (81.4%) of the<br>respondents were not aware of the negative impacts on human’s health, 90.7% of the respondents<br>were also not aware of the effects of excessive usage on agricultural produce and 74.4% of the<br>respondents were not aware either of the effect of the pesticides on land and the environment.<br>About 49.0% of the respondents adopted no protective measures, 59.2% of respondents do not<br>take bath after pesticide application. The findings further revealed that majority (82.6%) do not<br>read the producer guide before pesticide application. The study deduced that majority of the<br>cowpea farmers lack awareness on pesticides toxicity, application procedure and good<br>management practice. The study therefore recommends that farmers should be educated and be<br>encouraged to comply with precautions regarding pesticides usage and safety measures when<br>handling pesticides for sustainable land use and productivity.</p> Shehu, H. Mohammed, F. A. Mohammed, R. M. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 32 42 Mohammed F. A <p>This study was conducted to Analyse the Involvement of women in food crop production in Hawul<br>Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. 100 women food crop farmers were randomly<br>selected for the study and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents,<br>which were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results revealed that<br>most (37.0%) of the respondents belonged to the age group of 26-35 years. 50% married, 36%<br>literate, and 37.0% have a small portion of farm land. The findings also revealed that 30.0% had<br>6-10 years farming experience, 40.0% believed insufficient farm land is their major problem.<br>(53.0%) do not participate in land selection, but most (47.2%) participate in processing activities.<br>The coefficient of multiple determinants R2 of 0.5337 indicated a high relevance of input in<br>explaining the observed variation in food crop production. The regression coefficient of age,<br>household size, education and farming experience are significant at 1% level of significance. It<br>was concluded that women role in agricultural food crop production is at a subsistence level and<br>are constrained by several factors. The study recommends that extension agency should link<br>women farmers with sources of credit facilities, to enable them have access to capital that will<br>help them purchase the needed farm inputs. Government should sensitize and encourage women<br>to increase participation in land selection and storage activities for increase yield.</p> Mohammed F. A., Aliyu, Y. M Dodo, K. M Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 43 51 Determinants of Yam Farmers’ Choice of Coping Strategies to Economic Recession in Oye Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria. <p>The study assessed the determinants of yam farmers’ choice of coping strategies to economic<br>recession in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Specifically, this study identified<br>measures adopted by the yam farmers to cope with economic recession in the study area. Data<br>for the study were collected through structured questionnaire which was administered to 122<br>yam farmers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data for the study.<br>The result of the study indicated that over 70% of the farmers were engaged in petty business<br>and Intensify on on-farm activities to cope with economic recession. Estimates of Tobit<br>regression model showed that sex of the farmer, level of education, occupation, extension visit,<br>and association membership were significant at 1% level of probability, while farming<br>experience and household size were significant at 5% level of probability. The result implies<br>that yam farmers’ choice of coping strategies to economic recession is determined by these<br>variables. Based on these findings, it is recommended that adult education programmes should<br>be organized by the local government in order to increase the literacy levels of the respondents,<br>likewise extension visit should be strengthened through provision of necessary logistics so that<br>farmers will be sensitized on the different strategies to cope with economic recession. Farmer’s<br>associations should be encouraged by the extension agent, as it is an avenue for sharing<br>information and knowledge among themselves which could help in making better choice of<br>coping strategies. The involvement of farmers in other occupation could serve as an avenue to<br>earn additional income which could help in the choice of coping strategies to economic<br>recession.</p> Yusuf, H. A. Folorunso, O. A. Yusuf, H. O. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 52 60 Agricultural Loan Utilisation among Beneficieries of Bank of Agriculture in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria <p>The study examined agricultural loan utilisation among borrowers of Bank of Agriculture in<br>Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area, Bauchi State. It had the objective analyzing<br>agricultural loan utilisation among borrowers. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected<br>respondents through the instrument of questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics<br>(frequencies, ratio, percentages, and statistical means), T-test, regression and correlation<br>analyses. The results showed that beneficiaries had a 0.6:1 ratio of loan receipt to credit<br>applied for having received an average loan amount of N107, 250, being 60.4% of the loan<br>application. It was found out that crop production beneficiaries utilised the loan on fertiliser,<br>labour, farm assets, storage bags, agrochemicals and seed/seedlings, while animal production<br>beneficiaries used the loan for stocking, feed, labour, drugs and livestock equipment.<br>Regression result on the factors affecting loan utilisation showed that educational level,<br>farming experience, and number of supervisions were statistically significant (P&lt;0.05), while<br>timely loan receipt and interest rate were significant at (P&lt;0.01). Correlation between number<br>of supervision visits and the loan amount put to agricultural use was statistically significant<br>(P&lt;0.05). It was concluded that farmers made the best use of the amount of loan acquired.<br>However, the loan volume granted to farmers was inadequate. It was therefore recommended<br>that while more should be given in terms of loan volume to farmers, it should be followed by<br>intense supervision as it was found to correlate positively with loan utilisation.</p> Bulus, G Filli, F. B Iroegbute, U. K. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 61 73 Econometrics of Socio-economic Characteristics on Poultry-egg Production in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria <p>This study was on the econometrics of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on poultry-egg production in Wukari LGA of Taraba State. The study specifically, identified the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, determined the socio-economic factors that affected poultry-egg output and identified the constraints associated with poultry-egg farming in the study area. Primary data were collected from 150 poultry-egg producers in the study area. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The findings indicated that most of the respondents (71.33%) were males between 41-60 years of age with an average of 8 years’ experience in the poultry-egg business. The multiple regression indicates high F-Value (25.158), significant at 1% and R2 was 0.604 (60.4%). The multiple regression parameters showed that education level, household size, experience, extension visit, farm location and cooperative membership were positive and significant, while household head was found to be negative and significant. The study identified poor feed quality and poor day old chick as the most serious constraints to the poultry-egg business in the area. It is recommended in the study that extension service should be encouraged and credit and inputs should be made available and affordable to poultry farm owners.</p> Filli F. B. Bulus G. Mauya I. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 74 88 Soil Physical Properties and Root Growth of Pearl Millet as Affected by Ridge Tillage and Farmyard Manure <p>Ridge tillage (RT) and organic manure management are among promising agronomic<br>practices for conserving soil moisture and improving soil physical environment in arid and<br>semiarid rain-fed areas. The studies were conducted during the year 2020 farming season with<br>two soil types from northeastern part of Nigeria to compare the relative efficacy of RT with<br>and without organic manure in improving soil physical properties and root growth of millet<br>under rain-fed semi-arid condition. The effects of the RT treatments in combination with<br>organic manure were compared to the conventional flat-bed treatment (control, FB). The soil<br>types chosen for the study were sandy loam soil located at the University of Maiduguri<br>(Unimaid) and sandy clay loam located at Alakaramti village, respectively. The other land<br>configuration and manure treatments compared were: open-ridge (OR), tied-ridge (TR), flat<br>bed + manure (FBM), open-ridge + manure (ORM), and tied-ridge + manure (TRM) each laid<br>out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. The combination of RT (open or<br>tied) plus organic manure (ORM &amp; TRM) performed better in terms of all measured<br>parameters: bulk density (Bd), porosity (Tp), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil water content<br>(SWC) and root growth as measured with root mass density (RMD) than the bare ridge-tilled<br>(OR &amp; TR) or flat bed with manure (FBM) and without manure (FB) treatments, irrespective<br>of differences in soil type. The improvement in soil condition resulting from combining the<br>practices of RT with organic manure application as reflected by reduced Bd, increased Tp, and<br>higher profile SWC has enhanced millet root growth under the water limited rain-fed farming<br>system of the study area. In regions like northeast Nigeria where low and variable rainfall<br>often limits crop production, the practice of combining RT(open or tied) with organic matter<br>input could be recommended as an optimal agronomic practice for improving drought<br>resilience of crops like millet</p> Chiroma A. M Alhassan A. B. Usman K. Abdullahi R. Ibrahim A. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 89 107 Effects of Ridge Tillage and Organic Manure Treatment on Growth, Leaf Nutrient Concentration and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Stover Yield in Semi-arid Northeast Nigeria <p>In the drier areas where crop production is often constrained by low and variable rainfall, the<br>search continues for innovative practices in soil and crop management to make maximum use of<br>the water available for crop growth. Field experiments were therefore conducted in the rainy<br>season of the year 2020 at two locations with contrasting soil types (Sandy Loam), at Teaching<br>and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri (Unimaid) and Sandy Clay<br>Loam texture at Alakaramti village both located within Maiduguri and its environs, in northeast<br>Nigeria to evaluate the efficacy of ridging and manure amendment on improving the productivity<br>of the millet crop. In each site, six (6) land preparation and manure treatments consisting of: flatbed<br>(FB), open-ridge (OR), tied-ridge (TR), flat bed + manure (FBM), open-ridge + manure<br>(ORM), and tied-ridge + manure (TRM) were laid out in randomized complete block design with<br>four replicates. The results indicated that soil treated with organic manure irrespective of land<br>preparation type or location had greater nutrient levels compared to the un-amended soil. Millet<br>plants grown in FBM, ORM and TRM plots had increased plant height, number of tillers per plant<br>and stem diameter irrespective of differences in soil type or time of measurement. Millet leaf N, P<br>and K contents were all higher in the manure amended treatments than in the un-amended<br>treatments irrespective of land preparation method or location. The spectacular growth<br>performance exhibited by millet plants grown under manure amended treatments also translated<br>in higher stover yields. Mean increases in straw yield relative to the FB treatment were 36.8% for<br>FBM, 41.8% for ORM and 47.4% for TRM on the sandy loam soil. The corresponding increases<br>in straw yield due to these treatments on the sandy clay loam soil were 116.7% for FBM, 81.1%<br>for ORM and 146.7% for TRM. These results reinforce earlier findings that combining the land<br>preparation practice of ridge tillage (RT) with application of animal manure such as cow dung<br>has the potential of improving the productivity of the millet crop grown under the prevailing<br>edapho-climatic conditions of Maiduguri in northeast Nigeria.</p> Chiroma, A. M., Alhassan, A. B. Usman, K. Bababe, B. Kundiri, A. M. Tekwa, I. J Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 108 127 Assessment of Early Growth Response of Moringa oleifera, Faidherbia albida and Cassia fistula to Liquid Organic Fertilizers in the Nursery <p>A field experiment was carried out to assess the effects of two Liquid organic fertilizers (Bootstract and White fog) with the aim of investigating early growth response to M. oleifera, F. albida and C. fistula seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Nursery, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri. It was laid out in 2×3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD), analyzed with respect to two (2) different Liquid organic fertilizer and three (3) species of trees, the growth variables measured were: seedlings height, seedlings leaf number and seedlings collar girth. The results of the study revealed that seedling height increased with weeks after germination with significant difference between Bootstract White fog from the control. The highest seedling height was the treatment with Bootstract at 6 weeks (12.33 cm). There was significant interaction between species and fertilizer in terms of plant height. The fertilizer treatments also significantly affected the collar diameter with the highest number for Bootstract (0.63) at 6 weeks with control having the lowest value of 0.26 at week 2. The leaf numbers were significantly affected at weeks 2 and 6, however, there was no significant difference (P&lt; 0.05) at week 4. The study revealed that Liquid organic fertilizer demonstrated different growth performance as it supports rapid growth of M. olifera, F. albida, and C. fistula, seedlings more appropriately. In conclusion the result revealed that Liquid organic fertilizer has effect on the physical characteristics of the seedlings after germination emergence. It is evident from this study that Liquid organic fertilizers (White fog and Boostract) significantly enhance M. oleifera, F. albida and C. fistula seedlings growth.</p> Usman, A., Soba, T. M Daniel, Y. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 128 137 A Socio-economic Survey of Farmers in Selected Local Government Areas of Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria <p>A socio-economic survey of farmers’ in selected farming Local Government Areas of Borno<br>State, Nigeria was carried out in the year 2020 in order to suggest solutions that can improve<br>production. The selected Local Government Areas include Bayo, Biu, Kwaya-Kusar, Hawul<br>and Shani. Structured questionnaire was designed and administered in 25 farming<br>communities in the study area. A total of 375 household heads (farmers) were randomly<br>selected 5 each in the 25 communities drawn from the 5 LGAs. Simple descriptive statistics<br>such as percentages, frequency distribution tables, and charts were used to analyze the data<br>generated. The study revealed male farmers dominated the farming population (86%). 61.1%<br>of the farmers were in the active age category (31-45yrs) and formally educated with farming<br>as both their primary occupation and main source of income. The land tenure arrangements<br>identified in ascending order of importance are family inheritance, individual, communal and<br>government ownerships. Acquisition of land for farming purposes was not a problem especially<br>to non-indigenes or by purchase or rent/hire. Cases of land disputes were few in the<br>communities and were resolved mainly by the family/community elders. The average farm<br>holding in the communities was 5.7 hectare per farmer which is above the national average of<br>2 hectares. Only 6.1% had access to loan before but most (98.7%) indicated the need to have<br>grants and 36.8% expressed desire to have loans now. It is recommended that land tenure<br>reform on inherited agricultural lands be undertaken with the view to sufficiently liberalize<br>land rights. This is to suggest that government need to redefine the land use decree of 1978, so<br>as to separate farm Lands from Lands for other uses as the land tenure affects their crop<br>production.</p> Bwala, J. M. Mshelizah, U. M Mshelia, B. S. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 138 151 Role of Radio Agricultural Programmes on farmers’ education: A case study of Radio Benue, Makurdi, Benue State. <p>The study analysed the use of radio programmes on farmers’ education in Benue State. The<br>rationale of the study was to analyse the role of radio in educating farmers using Radio<br>Benue, Makurdi as a case study. The study employed survey as research design, using<br>questionnaire as instrument for data collection. Data were collected from a sample of three<br>hundred and eighty-four respondents through purposive, stratified and simple random<br>sampling technique. Using simple percentages, findings revealed that respondents gained<br>knowledge through listening to the programmes. Farmers (28.4%) gained knowledge of<br>appropriate fertilizer application through the agricultural programmes farming world and<br>Tom Sule (in Tiv) aired by radio, 26.8% of the respondents gained knowledge of agricultural<br>practices, and 25.8% of the farmers gained knowledge on the prevention of post- harvest<br>losses. The study concluded that the radio plays a vital role in creating awareness on<br>agricultural information among farmers. The study recommended amongst others that the<br>government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) should endeavour to introduce<br>grants and farm loans to the farmers through agricultural programmes so as to encourage<br>agricultural activities.</p> Danjuma, N. U. Agir, H. M. Zubairu, E. Agya, A. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 152 160 Market Outlet Preference and Consumer Behavior for Fish and Fish Products in the Federal Capital Territory, and Niger State, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to acertain market outlet preference and consumer behavior for fish and fish products in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and Niger State, Nigeria. The study used both primary and secondary data. A Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 140 respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, ascertain consumer preference for fish market outlets, consumer behavior for fish and fish products, determine factors affecting consumers’ decision to purchase fish and three market outlets identified from the study were organized retail, local markets and open vendors. Results showed that 54.3% and 72.9% of the respondents in the FCT and Niger State respectively, preferred to purchase fish and fish products from local markets. Product quality, nutritional value and price of product were the most important factors that guided consumers’ purchase behavior. Regression result showed that quality of fish and distance to outlets affected consumers’ decision to purchase fish at organized retail outlets and were statistically significant at 10%. Income, price of fish and health reasons were significant at 5%. The study concluded that the government and private sectors should address quality, nutritional value and price of fish when setting up market outlets. Retailers and processors should be encouraged through government interventions to improve techniques of fish processing, packaging, branding and preservation such that the quality and health benefits of fish and fish products are not altered.</p> Ibrahim, F. D., Uyanah, M. U., Adebayo, E. A Adamu, D. A Oseghale, A. I. Jirgi, A. J. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 161 173 Leaf Macronutrient Resorption During Senescence in Three Non-Indigenous Tree Species in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Nigeria <p>This study is aimed at assessing the extent of leaf nutrient resorption efficiency during<br>senescence of three species (Khaya. senegalensis, Syzygium cumini and Pongomia glabra) in<br>the Sudano-sahelian region of Nigeria. The species were selected from grooves of trees found<br>within Maiduguri metropolis. Three leaf samples at different developmental stages (young,<br>matured and senescence leaves) each were collected from the selected species. Each sample<br>was then analysed for nutrient contents. C content ranged from 39.79% in K. senegalensis,<br>43.89% in S. cumini to 41.59% in P. glabra. Matured leaves of S. cumini have the highest K<br>content with mean value of 9.08mg/kg, whereas young leaves of K. senegalensis and P. glasbra<br>were the highest with mean values of 8.68mg/kg and 8.45mg/kg respectively. There was a<br>significant decrease in K. content during senescence in S. cumini. Senescent leaves of K.<br>senegalensis and P. glasbra have higher Ca content with 1.06mg/kg and 0.81mg/kg,<br>respectively while matured leaves of S. cumini have the highest mean Ca content (0.82mg/kg).<br>Young leaves have the highest mean values of S content in all the leaves of the three species. S<br>declines significantly from matured to senescent in K. senegalensis. Young leaves of S. cumini<br>and P. glabra, and senescent leaves of K. senegalensis have the highest mean values of Mg<br>with 0.29mg/kg, 0.39mg/kg and 0.31mg/kg, respectively. Leaf P content is highest in matured<br>leaves of K. senegalensis, S. cumini and P. glabra with mean values of 0.06mg/kg, 0.04mg/kg<br>and 0.06mg/kg respectively and decreases during senescent. However, the decrease was only<br>significant in P. glabra. The highest mean value for N is recorded in the young leaves of K.<br>senegalensis with 0.04mg/kg, but it is highest in senescent leaves of S. cumini with 0.06mg/kg<br>and P. glabra with 0.17mg/kg</p> Usman, A. Sotannde, O. A. Alkali, I. B. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 174 185 Analysis of Costs and Returns of Sesame Production in Hong Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>The study was conducted to analyze cost and return of sesame production in Hong L.G.A of<br>Adamawa State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select fifty-seven sesame<br>farmers in the study area. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were<br>analyzed using gross margin analysis and descriptive statistics. The results revealed labour<br>cost accounted for 68.1% of the total cost of production. Cost of fertilizer accounted for 20.3%,<br>cost of chemical accounted for 7.8% while cost of seed accounted for 3.8%. On the average, it<br>cost N 47,451.35/ha to cultivate sesame in the study area. An average of N 65,053/ha accrues<br>to farmers as gross income and N 17, 601.65 is left as gross margin. The result of constraints<br>faced by sesame farmers were lack of credit facility 94.7% which was ranked 1st, inadequate<br>fertilizer 93.0% which was ranked 2nd, lack of good road 82.5% which was ranked 3rd, poor<br>extension services 77.2% which was ranked 4th, problem of pest 71.9% which was ranked 5th,<br>problem of disease 70.2 which was ranked 6th, and high cost of production inputs 56.1% which<br>was ranked 7th. The study concludes that sesame production in the study area is profitable and<br>the major constraints faced by sesame farmers is lack of credit facility and inadequate<br>fertilizer. Therefore, it was recommended that government should support sesame farmers by<br>providing subsidized production inputs and farm credit and also government should strengthen<br>and increase extension services among farmers.</p> Tahir, A. D., Alkali, H. M Saleh, R. A. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 186 193 Examining Roasted Fish Sellers Energy Preferences in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council <p>The study sought to examine roasted fish seller’s energy preferences in Maiduguri<br>Metropolitan Council area of Borno State. The population for this study included all the<br>roasted fish sellers in MMC. Thirty (30) roasted fish sellers were randomly selected for the<br>study. Data were generated through the use of structured questionnaires. Information on age,<br>sex, educational level, marital status etc. were collected and analyze using descriptive statistics<br>such as mean, frequency, percentages. The study reveals that Charcoal energy is the most<br>preferred energy by the respondents in the study area, thus, more consumption implies more<br>deforestation. As such, other clean alternative fuels should be made affordable and available<br>for the respondents to boost their businesses. Additionally, afforestation campaigns should be<br>encouraged by the government and all institutions concerned. Charcoal which is the most<br>preferred energy used by the respondents has no standard price. There should be a standard<br>price for this commodity.</p> Adamu, M. M. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 194 200 Costs and Returns Analysis of Rice (Oryza Sativa) Production Under Rainy Season in Birnin-Gwari Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. <p>This study examined the costs and returns of rainy season rice production in Birnin Gwari local government area of Kaduna state. Two stage sampling procedure was employed to select forty-eight respondents (48) respondents for the study. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire with the help of well-trained enumerators. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gross margin analysis and profitability ratios. Results revealed that the respondents were predominantly male (60.4%) and most (52.1%) were married. 25% had primary education,45.8% secondary education, and 12.5% tertiary education. The mean age for the households’ head was 33 years and the mean household size was 7 persons per household. The mean farming experience and annual farm income of the respondents were 17 years and ₦32,238 respectively. The average variable cost incurred per hectare was estimated to be N122,988 while the total cost of production was put at N 139,309. Gross revenue of N 257,000 was generated with a gross margin of N 134,012 and a net farm income of N 117,691. The profitability ratios of BCR=1.84, ESR=0.13, ROR=0.84, and GR=0.5, indicated that rainy season rice farming is highly profitable in the study area. The study therefore recommended that consistent government policies that would favor increase in paddy production, market information, extension service delivery, input subsidization and credit facilities be implemented.</p> Ibrahim, S. Yusuf, A. A., Mohammed, K. O. Audu, Z. O. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 201 210 Relationship between El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Northern Nigeria <p>l Nino Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) refers to the cycle of coherent and sometimes very strong<br>variations in the sea surface temperature (SST), convective rainfall, surface pressure and<br>atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The research investigated the<br>relationship between ENSO and rainfall across the Sudano-Sahelian region of northern<br>Nigeria. Rainfall data for seven (7) locations were sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological<br>Agency (NIMET) covering the period from 1950 to 2019 and El-Nino Southern Oscillation<br>(ENSO) data which comprised of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) covering the same period.<br>The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data was obtained from National Oceanographic<br>Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre. A bivariate correlation<br>analysis between rainfall and SOI were computed for all the seven locations to determine the<br>relationship between ENSO and Sudano-Sahelian rainfall. The result shows a significant<br>relationship for Potiskum, Maiduguri and Katsina with correlation coefficient (r) values of<br>0.25, 0.26 and 0.27 respectively while Kano Gusau Nguru and Sokoto show no significant<br>relationship. It is therefore concluded that there is no strong relationship between rainfall and<br>ENSO in Sudano-Sahelian part of northern Nigeria. It is recommended that further research<br>could be carried out to investigate the influence of ENSO on other climate parameters such as<br>temperature, humidity and evapotranspiration in the study area</p> Hashidu, U. S. Badaru, S. I. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 211 216 Climate Change Anomalies and Beans Production in Nigeria <p>This study evaluated the impact of climate change on yield and net revenue of beans production<br>in Nigeria using Feasible Generalised Least Square and Hedonic Ricardian Approach. Secondary<br>data were used for this study; monthly rainfall and temperature data from 1981 to 2019 were<br>obtained from Nigeria Meteorological agency while data on socioeconomic and demographic<br>characteristics as well as farm production for 2000 beans farmers across the six agro-ecological<br>zones were obtained from General household survey wave IV. The study reveals that beans crop<br>is sensitive to infinitesimal change in temperature than rainfall. The marginal impact analysis of<br>increasing temperature and rainfall indicated that a unit increase in rainfall decreased the net<br>revenue of beans by N14,997 per hectare, while a unit increase in temperature increased the net<br>revenue of the beans production in Nigeria by N15,316 per hectare. The adjusted mean yield of<br>beans will increase by 1.058kg per hectare with a unit increase in temperature while it will reduce<br>0.173 per hectare with a unit increase in rainfall. The study also examined the impact of predicted<br>climate scenarios from two models namely Canadian Climate Change and Parallel Climate Model<br>on net revenue for the years 2050 and 2100. All these models indicated increasing temperature<br>would have a positive impact on the net revenue from beans production for the year 2050 but the<br>impact will be negative by year 2100. This means there will be more profit from beans production<br>in year 2050 while in 2100 the beans farmers will produce at loss. Nigeria government should<br>therefore consider designing and implementing adaptation policies to counteract the harmful<br>impacts of climate change on beans production</p> Ajala, A. K., Ajetomobi, J. O. Ojedokun, I. K. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 217 233 Land Suitability Mapping for Optimum Soybean Production in Konshisha Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. <p>Land suitability mapping is a pre-requisite for optimum crop production and sustainable use of the land to provide food security. Soya bean is one of the most valuable food and cash crops produced in Konshisha LGA, Benue State, Nigeria. However, the production is constrained by low yield. Thus, the aim of this study is to map land suitable for optimum and sustainable soya bean production in the study area. As an effort toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of eradicating hunger by 2030. Multi spectral satellite imageries from Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager, Climate Research Unit (CRU), National Aeronautical Space Agency’s (NASA) Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and ORLN DAAC soil data were collected using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). GIS analysis and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) were carried out. Result of the multi criteria evaluation shows that climate, slope, land use land cover, and available phosphorus are favorable factors, while soil organic carbon, pH and drainage are limiting factors. The result of the overall suitability mapping shows that 30.4% of the land is highly suitable (S1), 69.5% moderately suitable (S2), and 0.1% marginally suitable (S3) for soya bean production in the study area. Based on the findings, the study concluded that low soil organic carbon, pH and poor soil drainage are the main land limiting factors for optimum soya bean production. Therefore, the study recommends application of mixed organic and inorganic fertilizers, agricultural lime, composite manure, agro-forestry, crop rotation, creation of open deep drains and channelization as supplement of the limiting factors for optimum soya bean production in the study area</p> Vanger, N. M. Usman, A. K Mohammed, H. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 234 245 Determinants of Income Diversification Strategies among Smallholder Wheat Farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the determinants of income diversification strategies among smallholder wheat farmers in Jigawa State. Primary data were collected from 255 smallholder wheat farmers in the study area selected using multi stage sampling procedure. The collected data were analysed using Logit regression, Simpson Diversification Index (SDI) and two stage least square regression analyses. The result revealed that non-farm income and number of income sources had significant positive relationship with income diversification. The two stage least square estimation with respect to Herfindahl Diversification Index (HDI) showed that age and years of education had positive significant relationship. The two stage least square estimation with respect to number of income share revealed that the number of income sources, age, farm size, frequency of extension contacts and years of education had significant positive relationship with per capita income. The major constraints to wheat production were limited production inputs (seed), pest and disease, low output price, lack of credit and timely preparation. Similarly, the effect of income diversification with reference to off farm income share showed that off farm income share, age and years of education had positive significant relationship. The study concluded that off farm income share and number of income sources were the most important determinants of income diversification and the major challenge to wheat production were limited access to right inputs, pest and diseases and low output prices. Thus, the study recommended that improving performance of determinants of diversification and linking farmers to better production and output markets as well as enlightening the farmers about pests and diseases control measures will improve the wellbeing of the farmers.</p> Malami, A, Umar, S Suleiman, I Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 246 256 Performance of Groundnut Marketing in Song Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>The study analyzed groundnut marketing in Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study and were collected from two major markets, and three local markets that were purposively selected for the study. The major markets selected were Song main market and Dumne market, while the local markets selected were Golantabal, Loko and Murke (Bariki) markets. Random sampling was used in selecting 39 wholesalers and 101 retailers from these markets. The analytical tools used were frequency distribution tables, Gross and Marketing Margin analyses and Marketing Efficiency. The findings revealed that groundnut marketing is profitable with a gross margin of N25,427.58 and N550,817.94 per week for retailers and wholesalers respectively. The marketing margins for retailers and wholesalers were estimated at 18.28% and 15.97% shares respectively, while their corresponding marketing efficiencies were estimated at 114.5% and 115.5% respectively, this is an indication of good market performance. The major constraints affecting groundnut marketers include lack of credit facilities (77%) and high cost of transportation (71%). The study recommends that lending agencies should provide more credit facilities to groundnut marketers at concessionary rates to boost their business activities. Also, feeder roads should be rehabilitated/constructed to reduce transportation cost; storage facilities should be provided in the market places by the government, non-governmental associations and other market associations so as to reduce losses of the commodity in storage which causes price fluctuation.</p> Ahmed, M. A. Idris, A Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 7 2 257 265