Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences <p>Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to publishing and disseminating original research papers in Agricultural Economics, other fields of Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Social and Management Sciences. The journal also welcomes review articles and short communications. It is published on line twice a year.</p> en-US (Professor Catherine O. Ojo) (Ms Asama'u A. Ghide) Sat, 24 Jul 2021 08:56:24 +0000 OJS 60 EFFECTS OF COMPOST MANURE AND IRRIGATION INTERVALS ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERS OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) IN SUDAN SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA <p>Field trials were conducted during 2017 dry season at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of<br>Agriculture, Bayero University, Kano and Birji village to determine the effects of compost manure<br>rates and irrigation intervals on the growth characters of onion (Allium cepa L.). The treatments<br>consisted of five rates of compost (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1) and three irrigation intervals (5, 10<br>and 15 days). The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation<br>intervals were assigned to the main plots while compost rates were assigned to the sub-plots. The<br>gross plot size was 1.5 m x 2.0 m (3.0 m2) consisting of 10 rows of 2 m length while the net plot<br>size was 0.9 m x 2.0 m (1.8 m2). Data on growth characters collected include; plant height, number<br>of leaves plant-1, leaf area plant-1 (LA), fresh weight plant-1 and dry matter plant-1. The data<br>collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat 17th Edition. Significant<br>treatment means were separated using Student-Newman-Keuls Test. The results showed that<br>compost rates and irrigation intervals had significant effects on all the characters collected (plant<br>height, number of leaves, LA, fresh weight and dry matter). The application of either 10 or 15 t ha-<br>1 of compost recorded higher and similar growth characters at both locations, while that of<br>irrigation intervals were either 10 or 5 days but the interactive effect has shown that 5days<br>irrigation interval was better. Therefore, the application of 10 t ha-l compost and 5days irrigation<br>interval may be recommended to be used by farmers in the Sudan savanna ecological zone of<br>Nigeria.</p> Waiya M. A., Lassa I. A. Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PERFORMANCE OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY SEED PRIMING SUBSTANCES IN SUDAN SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA <p>Field trials were conducted in 2016 rainy season at Teaching and Research Farm of Bayero<br>University Kano (Lat: 11o 58' N and Long: 8o 33' E) and Demonstration Farm of Lake Chad<br>Research Institute, Maiduguri, Borno (Lat: 11o 54' N and Long: 13o 50' E) both situated in the<br>Sudan Savanna ecology to study the performance of millet varieties as influenced by seed<br>priming substances. Treatments comprised of factorial combination of five seed primers (KCl,<br>CaCl2, Cow urine, Cow dung extract and control) and four millet varieties (LCICMV-1,<br>LCICMV-2, LCICMV-3 and LCICMV-4). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized<br>Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on growth<br>characters (crop vigour score, root shoot ratio, leaf area) and yield characters (harvest index,<br>panicle weight, grain yield). The data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatments<br>means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability.<br>Results have indicated that the growth and yield characters of the pearl millet evaluated were<br>significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected at both locations. Seed priming with KCl had higher root shoot<br>ratio (RSR), crop vigour score (CVS), harvest index (HID), panicle weight (PWT) and grain<br>yield per hectare (GYH) except at Maiduguri which application of cow dung extract (CDE)<br>resulted in more vigorous crops. Furthermore, the varieties LCICMV-1 and LCICMV-2<br>recorded higher GYH at Kano and Maiduguri, respectively. Therefore, pearl millet varieties<br>LCICMV-1 and LCICMV-2 primed with KCl might be recommended as seed priming<br>substances in the Sudan savanna agro ecology of Nigeria.</p> Bukar B., Lassa I. A. Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF RAW DIATOMACEOUS EARTH, LEAF POWDERS OF EUCALYPTUS AND MELIA AS TOXICANT AND REPELLENT AGAINST Callosobruchus subinnotatus (PIC.) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE). <p>The continuous application of synthetic insecticides results in toxicity and contamination of<br>seeds with toxic residues, which poses a serious health hazard to man. Laboratory experiments<br>were conducted to test the toxicity and repellent activity of raw diatomaceous earth, leaf<br>powders of Eucalyptus and Melia in the control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on<br>stored Bambara nut seeds under ambient laboratory conditions at a temperature of (29-33oC)<br>and relative humidity (44-56%). Three dose rates of each treatment was tested. Raw<br>diatomaceous earth, leaf powders of Eucalyptus and Melia were highly toxic to C. subinnotatus<br>evoking over 90% mortality in bambara nut seeds treated with the highest dose rates at 96 hours<br>after exposure. Also, all the plant powders (leaf powders of Eucalyptus and Melia) were highly<br>repellent to C. subinnotatus and the repellency was dose dependent. This study highlights an<br>opportunity to develop insecticides from natural products (raw diatomaceous earth, leaf<br>powders of Eucalyptus and Melia) and the potential of these as grain protectants is discussed.</p> Audu A., Ibrahim N.D. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Wed, 14 Jul 2021 14:24:20 +0000 Survey on Weed Control Methods among Farmers in Parts of Fika Local Government Area of Yobe State. <p>A survey was conducted during the rainy season between August and September of 2011 in<br>four wards of Fika Local Government Area of Yobe State. The survey was done in order to<br>determine the different weed control methods used by farmers, identify the Constraints limiting<br>the use of the identified methods of weed control and to assess the Farmers' perceptions of<br>effective usage of the different weed control methods in their farmlands. The data collected<br>was in form of oral interview whereby a structured questionnaire was administered to<br>individuals at random among 125 farmers of Ngalda, Fika-Town, Gadaka and Anze of the<br>Local Government Area in September. (18.4%) of farmers encountered Striga spp, (20%)<br>encountered Cyperus spp, (21%) had problems with Cenchrus spp and 40% encountered other<br>different weeds such as Cynodon dactylon and Pennisetum purpureum. The most effective and<br>popular method of weed control used by the farmers is the use of hoe weeding (44.8%), for<br>using herbicides as weed control, majority of the farmers (78.4%) do not use herbicides and<br>they do not know that they can control the weeds in their crops using Herbicides, while only<br>29.6% of the farmers use Herbicides to control the weeds in their crops. The constraints of<br>weed control by Hoe weeding as revealed by the farmers are strenuousness (44. 8%), with<br>Oxen plough (30.4%), Tractor (15.2%) and Hand pulling (9.6%). This method is not only<br>laboring intensive, expensive and strenuous, but can also cause damage to the growing<br>branches and root of plants. In addition to high labor demand by hoe weeding, there is<br>uncertainty leading to greater yield loss. The frequency of weeding twice by the farmers in the<br>study area from the survey findings is very high with 82.4%, while 10.4% and 7.2% of the<br>farmers weed once and thrice respectively. However, constraints limiting the use of Herbicides,<br>16.8% lack the experience, 8% lack the expertise to show them, 8.8% do not use herbicides<br>due to the unavailability and 66.4% due to the high cost. Farmers level of awareness/training<br>shows that only 4.8% were aware while 91.2% were not aware of using herbicides to control<br>the weeds in their crops. 53.6% of the farmers own their lands with 42.4% having between 2-<br>3 farms and 48.8% having only 1 farm. Family farm labour is at 50.4% and 49.6% as hired<br>farm labour. 54.4% were payed cash and 8.8% as labour exchange. There were 100%<br>considerations of weed control by the farmers. The availability of farm inputs and farmer’s<br>expectation from Government shows 97.6% signifying seed cost as cheap, 57.6% showed the<br>unavailability of fertilizer, 59.2% showed the high cost of fertilizer, 66.4% showed the<br>unavailability of Herbicides, 54.4% expect fertilizer from Government, 30.4% expect seeds,<br>11.2% tractor and 4% needed extension agents from Government. The study concludes that the<br>most prevalent weed control methods among farmers is the use of hoe weeding, and that the<br>use of herbicide is not well adopted. However, more awareness on the weed control methods<br>particularly the use of herbicides should be made known to farmers.</p> M. Kingimi1,, M. M. Yunusa, B. H. Gaya Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Jul 2021 22:30:37 +0000 GENETIC AND NON GENETIC (ENVIRONMENTAL) FACTORS AFFECTING MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF SMALL RUMINANT (A REVIEW). <p>This review aimed at assessing the genetic and non-genetic factors (environmental factors)<br>affecting milk yield and composition of small ruminant in the tropics. The main objectives of<br>the review is to highlight on the variation in milk yield and composition in sheep and goats as<br>it relates to breeds or genotype differences .Different breeds were reported to expressed<br>differences in their genetic potential for milk yield and composition. Nutrition and genetic<br>makeup of sheep and goats greatly influenced milk yield and composition. Nutrition<br>inadequacy affect milk production observed significant effect of season on milk production.<br>The highest milk fat and protein were attained in the 3rd and 4th lactation for both sheep and<br>goats respectively. The effect of age on milk yield and composition were significantly affected.<br>The differences had been attributed to genetic makeup. Beside animal factor season influenced<br>milk production, nutrition and management practices carried out.</p> J. Adamu. Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Jul 2021 22:50:28 +0000 ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMARY HEALTHCARE FACILITIES IN SELECTED LGAs IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA. <p>The weakening of Primary healthcare (PHC) services in terms of its availability and the<br>increasing demand of healthcare due to population growth in the study area might have placed<br>PHC facilities in a deplorable situation. This study adopted a multi-stage sampling and<br>purposefully select one Local government area (LGA) each from the three zones of the state<br>based on information-rich area and the mean representation of the overall population; Lafia<br>south-zone, Akwanga north -zone, and Keffi west-zone. Data used for the study includes the<br>administrative map covering the study area, data on the type of facilities and capacity,<br>geographic coordinates of PHC facilities and population data. Overlay, buffering and the<br>nearest neighbor analysis were conducted in GIS environment using Qgis 2.14 and Arcgis 10.0,<br>descriptive statistics were also used. Findings were presented on the analysis of spatial<br>distribution of PHC facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The results showed PHC facilities<br>visually and descriptively in the study area. The total of 257 functional Primary health care<br>facilities of which 65.4% are Public facilities with Lafia having the largest percentage (57.1%)<br>and Keffi the least (18.9%) in their various categories ranging from Primary healthcare centres,<br>Clinics and Post. Both Akwanga and Keffi LGA were above the WHO standard for the<br>distribution of these facilities. Hence Akwanga has a deficit of 55 health post, 8 health clinics<br>while a surplus of 55 health center. Keffi has a deficit of 36 health post, 7 health clinics but a<br>surplus of 47 health centers with respect to population. While Lafia LGA shows uneven<br>distribution from the 5Km buffer analysis it also has a deficit of 156 health post, 14 health clinics<br>while the surplus of 134 health centers. Chiroma ward had the largest percentage (6.1%) while<br>Ungwan Rimi had the least percentage (0.9%) meanwhile Iya 1 ward (Keffi) has no PHC<br>facility. According to neighborhood analysis and the WHO criteria ,the distribution of the PHC<br>facilities with respect to coverage (5Km Buffer) showed Akwanga and Keffi LGAs are<br>relatively well covered while Lafia LGA shows gross inadequacy. Therefore, based on the<br>result of the analysis, there is urgent need for all stakeholders to invest more on PHC so that<br>acute health problems could be minimized. And also community based approach in locating<br>PHC facilities should be adopted so that PHC centres could be located within the minimum<br>distance of 5km and 5,000 population service area as recommended standard by WHO (2007)<br>And finally, it is recommended also that further research work be carryout on the accessibility<br>of PHC facilities in order to ascertain the level of the utilization of these facilities by host<br>communities and how it improve their lives in the study area..</p> Idoko, E.Okpale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Wed, 14 Jul 2021 23:03:46 +0000 SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING POULTRY FARMERS’ ACCESSIBILITY TO CREDIT IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analyzed factors on access to credit by poultry farmers in Maiduguri Metropolis,<br>Nigeria. One hundred poultry farmers were randomly selected through multi stage random<br>sampling technique. Structured questionnaires were administered to generate data for the<br>study. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression model were used in achieving the specific<br>objectives. Results indicated that majority (73.0%) of the respondents were males with a mean<br>age of 40 years. Majority (77.0%) were married, tertiary education (70.0%), who had access<br>to market information (70.0%) with an access to extension (64.0%). The multiple regression<br>analysis revealed that the explanatory variables in the model account for 70.8% % of the<br>variations in the factors influencing poultry farmers’ accessibility to credit. The coefficients;<br>age, education, flock size, collateral, and guarantor and credit sources were positive and<br>significant at either 1% or 5% level. The study recommended that Poultry farmers should be<br>encouraged to join membership of poultry associations. This could enable them to have access<br>to market information, extension services and credit with a view to increasing their<br>productivity.</p> James, H., Mustapha, S. B., Adamu, A. Gadzama, Janada, J. Ghumdia Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 13:03:58 +0000 Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Groundnut Varieties among Women Farmers in Southern Part of Borno State, Nigeria <p>The study analyzed factors influencing adoption of improved groundnut varieties by women<br>farmers in southern part of Borno State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study wereto<br>describe the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers in the study area and factors<br>influencing likelihood of adoption of improved groundnut varieties by the women farmers.<br>Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents for the study. The primary data<br>for the study were collected using structuredquestionnaires administered to 340 respondents.<br>The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools (logit<br>regression Model). The study revealed that, the mean age of the respondents was 40<br>years.54.7% of the respondents had formal education had 5.3% only formal education. The<br>average income among the respondents was ₦167,000. 55.9%most of the respondents were<br>small holder farmers as revealed by the average farm size of 1.5 hectares. The logit regression<br>model revealedthat the variables age,income per annum and access to credit were significant<br>at 1% level while marital status, educational level, household size, primary occupation ,<br>farming experience, farm size and extension contact and member ship cooperative society<br>were significant at 5%level influencing adoption of improved groundnut varieties in the study<br>area. The study recommended that women groundnut farmers in the study are should be<br>encouraged to participate in adult literacy class and go for large scale groundnut farming.</p> Thawur, P., Hadiza, S. Nuhu, Yusuf, L. Idrisa, Adamu A. Gadzama Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Jul 2021 13:26:13 +0000 IMPACT OF SORTING AND WASHING ON TOTAL AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATIONS OF SOME SELECTED FOOD STUFFS IN KANO MARKET <p>Any applicable measure to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards of aflatoxin food<br>contaminations underscores the essence to routinely check or evaluate food stuffs in many<br>markets for aflatoxin contaminations especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This<br>study investigated the level of aflatoxin contaminations on sorted and wash-dried samples of<br>cowpea, maize, melon, groundnut, yam chips and smoke-dried fish sold in Rimi market in<br>Kano state in December, 2020. Preliminary tests such as physical observation, proximate<br>compositions and microbial analysis were also conducted following standard protocols. Data<br>were subjected to analysis of variance and there were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the<br>level of aflatoxins, proximate compositions and total viable counts of microbial infestation of<br>the food stuff analyzed. Moisture contents range from 4.03±0.01-12.11±0.22% accounted for<br>melon and smoked dried fish. Groundnut with moisture content of 6.02±0.05% had the highest<br>aflatoxin contamination of 96.31±12.08μgkg-1 attributed to unsorted sample followed by<br>cowpea with the least mean score of 0.078±0.02 μgkg-1 total aflatoxin contaminations. There<br>was between 9.0-79% reduction in AF total contamination after samples were sorted; and a<br>further 24-94% reduction in AF total contamination after samples were sorted, washed and dried.<br>Bacterial counts were between 4.05 x105 -2.99x106 cfu/ml in terms of range through all<br>samples. Aside other fungal species isolated in some samples, Aspergillus niger and<br>Aspergillus flavus were common to all samples analyzed. It is therefore, pertinent to say that<br>relevant agencies and policy makers should encourage sorting and washing of any food grains<br>and smoked dried fish before consumption.</p> Ibrahim, B, Saka, K.H., Farida, U.A., Abdullah, T.I., Ahmad, K.Y., Adamu, A.A, Bamishaiye E.I Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Jul 2021 13:45:04 +0000 LIVELIHOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TO SOIL EROSION IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA <p>Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of<br>natural disasters. The study aims to assess the level of household livelihood vulnerability to<br>soil erosion in Kano State. The study was conducted in six (6) purposively selected Local<br>Government Areas of Kano state. Data were collected from 376 randomly selected households.<br>The focusing parameters are: health, food, knowledge and skills, livelihood strategies, land,<br>natural disaster and climate variability, socio demographic conditions, social networks,<br>housing and production means and finance and income. The data were aggregated using a<br>Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) and vulnerability scores were compared. Ungogo was<br>found to be the least vulnerable with LVI of 0.322 because of better access to basic amenities<br>and livelihood strategies while Dawakin Tofa with LVI score of 0.412 was the most vulnerable.<br>The study also found that adaptive capacities of the households are important in limiting<br>vulnerability and thus promotion of resilience. These results have implications for initiation<br>and implementation of household resilience projects by the government, donor agencies and<br>other related organizations.</p> M.K.Yahaya, A. Mustapha, A. Suleiman, M.A.Abdullahi Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Jul 2021 14:00:10 +0000 REGIONAL MARKET INTEGRATION: A PANACEA TO INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME IN NIGERIA <p>One of the greatest arguments about food commodities markets in Nigeria is that some of the<br>markets are inefficient because trade flows are mostly regional based. This study examined the<br>extent and degree of integration amongst Yam tuber and Cowpeas markets in six states from the<br>six geopolitical zones of Nigeria from 2000 - 2018 using Johansen Co-integration, Granger<br>Causality, Vector error correction model and Variance Decomposition methodologies. We confirm<br>that the markets are integrated, and have various degrees of price leadership. The speed of<br>adjustment to equilibrium ranged from two months [Niger (β = -0.62, p&lt;0.05)] to two years [Oyo<br>(β = -0.05, p&lt;0.05)] in yam market; four months [Niger (β = -0.32, p&lt;0.05)] and nine months [Oyo<br>(β = -0.12, p&lt;0.01)] in the brown-cowpea market; and from nine months [Adamawa and Niger (β<br>= - 0.12, p&lt;0.05)] to one year [Oyo (β = -0.09, p&lt;0.01)] in the white-cowpea market. The price<br>shocks on the markets were found to be mainly due to specific market functioning. The implication<br>of the finding is that the markets, if supplemented with more open policy initiatives, can play a<br>more effective role in increasing productivity and income of both producers and marketers.</p> Onubogu, Onyinyechukwu H., Dipeolu, Adewale O. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 19:32:34 +0000 Factors Affecting Marketing Margin and Efficiency of Cowpea in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria <p>The study examined factors affecting marketing margin and efficiency of yam in Northern Tararba<br>state. The specific objectives were to ascertain the marketing margin and efficiency of cowpea<br>wholesalers and retailers in the area and ascertain factors affecting cowpea marketing in the area.<br>Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected<br>139 cowpea marketers. Descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, and logit regression<br>analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The results revealed that 77.6% and 74.4% of<br>the wholesale and retail cowpea marketers were males respectively. Majority of them fell within<br>the age group of 38 - 47 years. 63.3% and 65.6% of the wholesale and retail cowpea marketers<br>were married respectively. About 83.7% and 88.9% of these categories of cowpea marketers had<br>formal education respectively. Majority of wholesalers (83.7%) and retailers (76.7%) did not<br>belong to any cooperative organization. The results also revealed that majority of wholesalers<br>(79.59 %) and retailers (74.44%) had no access to credit. Also, 42.9% and 58.9% of both<br>categories of cowpea marketers had 6-10 years’ experience in cowpea trading. The net marketing<br>margin for wholesalers was N7,400.00 while that of retailers was N1,300.00. The marketing<br>efficiency index was N0.1 and N0.2 respectively. The regression result revealed that gender (X1),<br>marketing experience (X4), educational level(X5), transport cost (X6), labour costs (X7),<br>membership of cooperative (X8), access to credit (X9) and poor infrastructure (X10)were significant<br>at 1%, 5% and 10% level of probability as they constitute major determinants of cowpea marketing<br>margin and efficiency in the area. It was concluded that the sampled marketers were inefficient<br>and transportation cost affect market efficiency. It is recommended that the government should<br>make effort addressing transportation problems by regular maintenance of roads and provision of<br>alternative means of transportation (such as rail), as this would reduce cost incurred in moving<br>the farm produce.</p> Isa, A., Oladimeji, E.D, Rukwe, D.T Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 19:47:51 +0000 ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL RADIO PROGRAMMES UTILIZATION AMONG CROP FARMERS IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analyzed agricultural radio programmes utilization among crop famers in Kano<br>State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents.<br>A sample size of 191 crop farmers were randomly selected for the study. Primary data were<br>obtained through the use of in-depth interview schedule. The data collected were analyzed<br>using descriptive statistics, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and inferential statistics<br>(logit regression) were used. The results revealed the mean age of 42 years, mean household<br>size of 9 members, mean farm size 1.9 (ha) and mean farming experience of 20 years. The<br>result also revealed that 91.8% own a radio set which allowed them to listen to agricultural<br>radio programmes. Technology acceptance model result reported a positive outcome in terms<br>of ease of usage (67.2%), perceived attitude (66.0%) and perceived usefulness (59.2%). The<br>result further revealed that of the 12 agricultural technologies considered, crop farmers highly<br>utilized planting date/technologies, improved varieties of crops/seeds and seeds dressing and<br>treatment with mean scores of 4.62, 4.56 and 4.50 respectively. The logistic regression revealed<br>farming experience (p&lt;0.1, 0.043), household size (p&lt;0.1, 0.077) extension contact (p&lt;0.05,<br>0.004) and ownership of a radio set (p&lt;0.05, 0.007) were positively and significantly influenced<br>utilization of technology broadcast through agricultural radio programmes. Short period<br>(50.3%) of time for airing, technicalities involved in explaining some technologies broadcast<br>(46.6%) and inability to demonstrate technologies during broadcast (44.5%) are among the<br>constraints bedeviling the effective utilization of agricultural radio programmes. The study<br>concluded that access and utilization of agricultural radio programmes were highly effective<br>towards the improvement of crop production. It was recommended that adequate time for airing<br>and sponsorship for agricultural radio programmes should be provided. In addition, there is a<br>need to simplify technicalities of some technologies and allow crop farmers to seek clarification<br>during broadcast.</p> Tafida, I., Sabiu, S. A. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 20:02:50 +0000 Status and Distribution of Micronutrients in Selected Soil Orders of the Northern Savannah Region of Nigeria <p>A study was carried out to determine the status and distribution of available copper (Cu), Iron<br>(Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) across different soil orders within the northern savannah<br>region of Nigeria. Soils were sampled from four savannah ecological zones in Nigeria; derived<br>savannah, northern guinea savannah, southern guinea savannah and Sudan savannah. Ten<br>samples were collected at a depth of 0 -20 cm from two different soil orders in the region. The<br>soil was analyzed for pH, particle size distribution as well as extractable micronutrient contents.<br>The Alfisols of the Derived savannah were observed to have the highest mean content of Cu,<br>Fe and Zn of 6.20 mg kg-1, 17.40 mg kg-1 and 18.29 mg kg-1 respectively. The lowest contents<br>of Cu (2.57 mg kg-1), Fe (3.31 mg kg-1) and Zn (3.11 mg kg-1) were observed in the Alfisols<br>of the Sudan savannah. Manganese was observed to have the highest concentration of 38.08<br>mg kg-1 in the Vertisols of the Derived savannah while the lowest content of 5.72 mg kg-1 was<br>obtained in the Alfisols of the Southern Guinea savannah. Generally, the contents of the<br>micronutrients across the soil orders were in the high category except for Fe in the Inceptisols<br>of the Sudan savannah which fell in the medium category. Arable crop production will not<br>require an application of these micronutrients across all the locations.</p> Mustapha, Aishat Ayobami. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 20:16:25 +0000 ANALYSIS OF ADOPTION OF THE N2AFRICA/IITA IMPROVED SOYBEAN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analyzes the adoption of N2AFRICA/IITA improved soybean production<br>technologies in Kano State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select<br>142 soybean farmers drawn randomly from the study area. Structured interview schedule was<br>used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logit regression and<br>Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The results revealed that majority (82%) of the<br>respondents were male. The average age and years of farming experience of the respondents<br>were 47 and 16 years respectively, with mean household size of 12 persons. The logit<br>regression analysis reveals that age and household size had positive and significant influence<br>on adoption at 1% (P&lt;0.1). Meanwhile marital status and frequency of extension contact had<br>positive and significant influence on adoption at 5% (P&lt;0.05). Participation in demonstration<br>and farming experience had positive and significant influence on adoption at 10% (P&lt;0.01).<br>The result further revealed that about 67% of the improved soybean production technologies<br>were adopted by the respondents. Almost all (97.89% and 97.18%) of the respondents had<br>positive perception that improved soybean production technologies were easy to used and the<br>technologies were useful as revealed by a mean score of 4.89 and 4.88 respectively. While,<br>more than half (58.46%) of the respondents indicated positive attitude towards using the<br>technologies as shown by a mean score of 2.56. Also, all the seven practices demonstrated were<br>proved to be highly effective with mean score of 4.86. All constraints to adoption were<br>perceived as highly severe except non-availability of seed, complexity of the technologies, low<br>yield potential of the varieties and high cost of seed. The study concluded that although, most<br>of the technologies diffused in the study area were adopted, but there was poor adoption of<br>phosphate fertilizer inoculants due to non-availability of the inputs. Therefore, provisions of<br>those inputs are needed for effective technology adoption.</p> Tafida, I., Musa, M. U. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 20:57:22 +0000 Assessment of Opportunities and Constraints Associated with Maize Cribs Utilisation by Maize Producers in Southwest, Nigeria <p>The study was conducted in Southwest Nigeria to assess the opportunities and constraints<br>associated with traditional maize crib and improved maize crib (TMC and IMC) utilization by<br>maize producers. Proportionate sampling procedure was carried out on multi stage basis to<br>draw a sample size of 379 respondents. Using a validated and structured questionnaire as data<br>gathering tool, benefits associated with cribs utilization was measured on a three-point Likerttype<br>numerical scale 3-1 as highly beneficial (hb), beneficial (b) less beneficial (lb), with<br>constraints categorized as highly severe (hs), severe (s) and less severe (ls). Data was analyzed<br>using descriptive statistics involving frequency distribution, percentages and mean. Farmers’<br>socioeconomic analysis results reveal male as the dominant sex (84.2%), while majority<br>(87.5%) were married, with mean age of 48 years, average monthly income of N232,229.48 and<br>mean household size of 6 members. Likert scale mean results ranked cheap acquisition of TMC<br>and its ability to protect stored maize from excessive sunshine and heat as highly beneficial. The<br>constraint of direction of wind, rainfall and orientation of TMC was severe and of great concern<br>to the farmers. Durability of IMC and its ability to maintain moisture content over a period of<br>time was highly beneficial to maize farmers in the study area while lack of expertize to build<br>and position IMC was highly severe to more than half (52.3%) of the respondents. Cribs storage<br>technologies prove to be very beneficial to smallholder maize farmers for storage in periods<br>not exceeding six months. This study recommends training of maize farmers which could build<br>their capacity to overcome their stated constraints.</p> Benson, O. B., Agoda, S., Agboola, A. A, Olumon, A. Q, Alarima, C.I. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 21:18:30 +0000 Genetic Variability of Extra-Early Yellow Maize Hybrids Under Drought Environment <p>Success of any breeding program depends on the ability to determine germplasm diversity and<br>genetic relationships among breeding materials. Genetic diversity is an invaluable aid in crop<br>improvement. This study aims at identifying genetic diversity among a set of sixty-six extra-early<br>yellow maize hybrids and four checks under drought environment. The hybrids were assessed<br>using cluster and principal component (PC) analyses based on morphological and agronomical<br>data observed in a randomized incomplete block design experiment with two replications. The<br>principal component reveals that the first three components account for 65% variability. PC1 gave<br>maximum variability and PC1 and PC2 can be utilized for hybridization program. The principal<br>component biplot reveals the relationship among traits and the distance of each variable in<br>determining variability among hybrids. The cluster diagram reveals four distinct groups. Group I<br>consisted of 13 hybrids, group II 12 hybrids, group III 18 hybrids and group IV consisted of 17<br>hybrids and were high yielding hybrids. Both principal component and cluster analysis revealed<br>the genetic diversity among the hybrids and identified genotypes that can be selected for drought<br>stress.</p> Abdulwahab Saliu Shaibu, Rekiya O. Abdulmalik Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Jul 2021 21:48:16 +0000 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SELECTED ORGANIC MATERIALS WITH POTENTIALS AS SOIL AMENDMENTS IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA <p>Lack of standard recommendation on the quantity of organic materials to apply to crop fields<br>leads to over or under application of the plant nutrient to the soil, due to lack of knowledge<br>about the exact quantity of nutrient the organic material contains hence, underscores the need<br>to examine the nutrient content of organic materials intended for use on agricultural fields. A<br>laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the nutrient contents of some selected organic<br>materials in Kano state. The samples collected include; poultry manure, cattle manure, goat<br>manure, sheep manure, rabbit manure, horse manure, camel manure, donkey manure, millet<br>husk, neem leaves, wood shaving, charcoal, egg shell, termitarium, compost, farm yard<br>manure, crop residues, maize bran, wood ash and rice husk. The samples after collection where<br>prepared and analyzed for routine soil chemical properties using standard laboratory<br>procedure. The data collected from the laboratory analysis was subjected to statistical analysis<br>using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance and the means were separated<br>using turkey’s 95% confidence interval. The result indicates that the highest total N value was<br>obtained in poultry manure followed by sheep dung and goat manure. While the highest<br>phosphorus content was obtained in cow manure with phosphorus content of (21.86g kg-1)<br>while rabbit manure had the highest content of K (1.13 gkg-1). For soils deficient in Zn, the<br>application of compost is recommended because compost gave the highest Zn content among<br>the manures. The result of this research may serve as a benchmark for providing organic<br>fertilizer recommendations for crops, this type of information may also be used by crop<br>simulation modelers as an estimate for each manure type from this region.</p> Abdulrahman, Bassam Lawan, Mustapha, Aishat Ayobami Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences Thu, 15 Jul 2021 22:13:30 +0000 INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC VARIABLES ON PADDY RICE (Oryza sativa) MARKETING IN SELECTTED MARKETS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study examined the socio- economic variables of the paddy rice marketers, market structure &amp;margin<br>as well as constraints to paddy rice (Oryza sativa) marketing in selected markets in Bauchi State, Nigeria.<br>Six markets were purposively selected and a total of 124 marketers were randomly chosen. Primary data<br>were collected by the use of structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to<br>analyze the data. Results of socio-economic characteristics showed that majority of the respondents<br>(88.7%) were males and 53.2% were between the ages of 21- 40years, which indicates that the respondents<br>were within their active age. Majority (78%) of the paddy rice marketers had attained various level of<br>education in the study area. The results also revealed that 45.2% of the sampled Marketers have less than<br>6 people in their household and 66.9% of the paddy rice marketers financed their business from personal<br>savings, loan from banks constituted 11.3%. Colleagues or other marketers constituted 67.7% of the<br>sources of market information to paddy rice marketers in the study area. The result shows that paddy rice<br>marketers had a Gini coefficient of 0.64, implies that there is a significant inequality in the distribution of<br>income among the paddy rice marketers in the study area. Factors influencing marketing margin of paddy<br>rice in the study area include marital status at 1%, household size at 10%, years of experience and<br>educational level at 5% respectively. The result indicates that the model has an F-ratio (11.562) which<br>shows that the whole model was significant at 1 percent level of probability. The coefficient of determination<br>(R2) indicated that 45.5% variation in the dependent variable was explained by the explanatory variables<br>included in the model, while the remaining was as a result of variables not included in the model as well<br>as errors in estimation. The major constraints identified in the study area include inadequate capital, poor<br>road network and storage facility, seasonality of supply and lack of standard unit of measurement. Based<br>on the findings from the study, it was recommended that Government should provides credit facilities;<br>improved transportation network and marketers encouraged to form cooperatives so that they can pool<br>their resources together to increase their scale of operation.</p> Dayyabu, L.M, Ma’ule, U.M., 3Dalhatu, A. Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Jul 2021 22:28:00 +0000 Assessment of the Effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Crop Production in Hawul Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. <p>This study was conducted in Hawul Local Government Area Borno State, North-eastern Nigeria.<br>The study aimed at assessing the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on crop production in the Local<br>Government Area. Multistage random sampling was to select 240 crop farmers. The data were<br>analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics-paired t-test. Socio-economic characteristics were<br>analyzed using percentages and means while paired t-test method was used to test the effect of<br>insurgency on farm operation, farm inputs and crop yield before and after the conflict. The analysis<br>of the results revealed that majority (83.8%) of the farmers were male, literate(85.1%) and<br>experienced 41years farmers with mean annual farm income of ₦165,000.00. There was<br>significant increase in expenses of farm operation after the conflict . Inputs usage (seed, fertilizer,<br>herbicides, pesticide and labour) also increased significantly by more than 60.0% after the conflict.<br>Average crop yield in kilogram per hectare after the conflict in years 2015-2017 decreased<br>significantly compared to years 2004-2008 before the conflict. The percentage decrease from -<br>45.0%,-45.0%,-45.0%,-55.0%,-64.8%, and-83.5% respectively for rice, cowpea, groundnut,<br>maize, sorghum and soybean. Others were -45.0% for pepper, -52.7% for Garden egg and -55.9%<br>for tomato. The study therefore, established that with the significantly increased in cost of farm<br>operation and inputs usage after the insurgency the farmers recorded low yield in the study area.<br>Furthermore, output of kilogram per hectare has also reduced significantly during the period of<br>after the attack. It is therefore, recommended, that this reduction in crop production could be<br>detrimental to the welfare and livelihood of farmers in the study area. Hence, livelihood support<br>programme is urgently needed to supplement this under production.</p> Anjikwi Yakubu, Bashir Alhaji Baba, Pilngwa Thlawu, Adamu A. Gadzama Copyright (c) Fri, 16 Jul 2021 08:32:32 +0000