Relationship between El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Northern Nigeria


El Nino Southern Oscillation
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)

How to Cite

Hashidu, U. S., & Badaru, S. I. (2021). Relationship between El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Northern Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences, 7(2), 211-216. Retrieved from


l Nino Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) refers to the cycle of coherent and sometimes very strong
variations in the sea surface temperature (SST), convective rainfall, surface pressure and
atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The research investigated the
relationship between ENSO and rainfall across the Sudano-Sahelian region of northern
Nigeria. Rainfall data for seven (7) locations were sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological
Agency (NIMET) covering the period from 1950 to 2019 and El-Nino Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) data which comprised of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) covering the same period.
The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data was obtained from National Oceanographic
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre. A bivariate correlation
analysis between rainfall and SOI were computed for all the seven locations to determine the
relationship between ENSO and Sudano-Sahelian rainfall. The result shows a significant
relationship for Potiskum, Maiduguri and Katsina with correlation coefficient (r) values of
0.25, 0.26 and 0.27 respectively while Kano Gusau Nguru and Sokoto show no significant
relationship. It is therefore concluded that there is no strong relationship between rainfall and
ENSO in Sudano-Sahelian part of northern Nigeria. It is recommended that further research
could be carried out to investigate the influence of ENSO on other climate parameters such as
temperature, humidity and evapotranspiration in the study area



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